Pros and Cons of Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids

man experiencing hearing loss in restaurant

Tommy McDonell used to have her aide take all her phone calls. The 67-year-old artist and retired educator couldn’t hear well enough to talk on the phone.

“The volume on my TV could probably kill the people next door,” she says of her neighbors in the retirement facility where she lives in Southern Pines, NC. Having multiple sclerosis makes her hearing loss worse. “If you test my hearing when my MS is good, then my hearing isn’t absolutely awful, but if you test me when my MS is having a bad day, my hearing gets worse and worse.”

Her hearing loss only adds to the difficulty in thinking her MS sometimes causes.

When she decided to get hearing aids, McDonell had two choices: the traditional route that requires a medical evaluation and buying through a licensed professional hearing aid dispenser, or the relatively cheaper, but still costly, direct-to-consumer option.

Those costs and hurdles are what led to the passage of a federal law in 2017 that designates a new FDA-regulated category for over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids. But OTC hearing aids, which will be approved to treat mild to moderate hearing loss in adults ages 18 and older, aren’t here just yet. The FDA has until August 2020 to publish proposed guidelines for OTC hearing aids.

After that, the public — including audiologists, doctors, device makers, people with hearing loss, or anyone else with concerns — will have time to weigh in before guidelines are finalized. Until then, and perhaps long after, the world of hearing devices might be difficult to navigate.

Why the New Label?

While an estimated 30 million Americans have hearing loss, only about one to three in 10 adults older than age 50 who might benefit from hearing aids use them. This matters because hearing loss can lead to social isolation, a decline in memory and thinking skills, and a higher risk for dementia. But hearing aids — the primary treatment for hearing loss in older adults — simply aren’t an option for many Americans.

A pair of hearing aids runs $ 5,600 on average — a cost that health insurance doesn’t typically pick up. In order to get the devices, people with hearing loss must have a medical exam to rule out the slim chance of a serious medical problem that is causing the hearing loss, or they must sign a waiver opting out of the exam. You can only buy hearing aids through an audiologist or a licensed hearing aid dispenser, who is authorized to test hearing and sell hearing aids.


The cost of the hearing aids covers these professional services and may include up to 4 years of follow-up at no extra cost. But hearing professionals usually contract with just a few brands. That means that choosing a hearing professional limits a person’s hearing aid choices, and changing audiologists as a result of location or personal preference could require a person to change hearing aids, too.

Due in part to these hurdles, once a person starts to lose their hearing, they wait an average of 7 years before they seek help.

“They’ve heard horror stories,” says Stavros Basseas, PhD, CEO of Sound World Solutions, a hearing aid maker. “They know the hearing aids are very expensive. They know they have to go through an audiologist, and the aesthetics play a role, too. Hearing aids indicate old age.”

McDonell’s first audiologist fit her with a $ 5,800 pair of hearing aids, but McDonell wasn’t crazy about them. “They didn’t seem to fit that well, and since they are so expensive, I was constantly worried they’d fall off my ears,” she says. Plus, she didn’t feel the audiologist herself was a good fit either, so she tried someone else. But the second audiologist only worked with a type of hearing aid that would cost $ 10,000 for a pair. McDonell decided to hold off.

Skipping the Middleman

Because OTC hearing aids weren’t available, McDonell’s only other option was something that falls between OTC and traditional hearing aids. They are direct-to-consumer, self-fit hearing aids. The makers of these hearing aids, which meet all the same FDA regulations as their more expensive counterparts sold from an audiologist’s office, save customers a trip to a hearing aid clinic by keeping hearing professionals on staff.

That way, the hearing aids are still dispensed through a licensed professional, but not an expensive middleman. This lowers costs for the device maker, and some of those savings are passed on to the end user.

“You can only buy online or over the phone via a specialist,” says Christian Gormsen, CEO of Eargo, which makes hearing aids and sells them direct to consumers. “We have professional audiologists on staff who support clients all over the nation.” Eargo hearing aids, he says, will never be sold at a drugstore or big-box store, where you might expect to find over-the-counter hearing aids in late 2020. (Sound World Solutions offers a direct-to-consumer hearing aid, too.)


Over the phone or online, buyers give specialists the same medical information that they would in an audiologist’s office and say they understand that this is a medical device and not suited for people younger than 18.

Direct-to-consumer hearing aids come with factory presets for hearing loss, ranging from mild to severe. Audiologists who sell hearing aids in their clinics say factory presets aren’t good enough. “A hearing aid that’s fit by a professional is fit to a prescriptive target based on scientific research so that the volume is set to how someone hears at those exact frequencies,” says Cynthia Hogan, PhD, an audiologist and director of the hearing program at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN.

But, Gormsen of Eargo says, direct-to-consumer hearing aids do almost the same thing. They are pre-tuned to enhance hearing at the frequencies where, according to research, hearing loss most commonly happens at each level of severity. “It’s true that we don’t go in and individualize each one, but [professional fitting] is an ancient byproduct of a time 30 years ago when [hearing aids] really needed to be tuned,” he says. “The presets are based on data and set by experienced audiologists, so it’s how you would fit them in a clinic.”

Some direct-to-consumer hearing aids, such as Sound World’s, allow users to download an app and customize their device beyond out-of-the-box settings. “It’s a fitting software just like an audiologist uses, but it’s the end user that does it,” says Basseas.

McDonell opted to buy Eargo’s direct-to-consumer, self-fit hearing aids in lieu of the $ 10,000 option offered by her audiologist. At $ 1,450 to $ 2,550 for the three different models the online company offers, they were less than half the price of her first pair of hearing aids. She didn’t feel she was losing out on any support by skirting the typically required face-to-face visit with an audiologist.

“They are great on the phone. Their videos provide the best instruction. The website is easy to navigate. And if needed, they’ll talk to you online through Skype,” McDonell says. “I personally don’t feel any need to see anybody.”

Most important, the hearing aids work. “I can hear the heat coming out of the register,” she says. “I don’t think people with normal hearing can do that.”


Uncharted Waters

Direct-to-consumer hearing aids ease some of the cost and access problems that led a team of researchers to recommend that the FDA create the new over-the-counter hearing aid category. They called for more affordable devices that would put control in the user’s hands — control over both the settings of the device itself and their choices.

With official FDA-approved OTC hearing aids still at least a year away, the FDA warned companies in a letter not to call their devices OTC hearing aids prematurely. Not all companies heeded the warning. So, buyers should beware that any device currently labeled as an OTC hearing aid has not been evaluated by the FDA.

“At the moment, there are no OTC hearing aids. If someone labels them as such, that violates the law. There are no official regulations that define OTC hearing aids yet,” says Paul Kileny, PhD, an audiologist and director of Michigan Hearing at the University of Michigan. “Anything you buy that is labeled as an OTC hearing aid is not.”

Then what are all those devices that look like hearing aids that you can already buy at Walmart, Best Buy, and other box stores and drugstores? No matter what the package calls them — and you will see many different names — any hearing devices that you can buy now over the counter, without a specialist, are personal sound amplification products, or PSAPs. They’re not regulated by FDA, and the device makers are not supposed to market them for hearing loss. They might instead market them for birdwatching or spying — activities in which even a person with normal hearing would want to turn up the volume on the sounds around them.

They range in price — from less than $ 10 to nearly $ 1,000 — as well as in quality, performance, and how well users can program them. Research shows that some perform nearly as well as traditional hearing aids, while others leave the user worse off than without any assistive device at all. Some can’t filter out background noise, raising the volume equally on all the sounds around you, not just the ones you want to hear.


Market Need?

It’s still anybody’s guess as to where an OTC hearing aid will fit into this market. Will it be better than a PSAP but not as good as a traditional hearing aid? Will it simply be a PSAP — with all its variability in price, quality, and performance — under a new, more credible name? Or will it be just like a traditional hearing aid without the assessment and support of a hearing professional?

“For people to provide it at a more accessible price point, the easiest thing and the most expensive thing to cut out is the support,” says Eargo’s Gormsen, whose company will not offer an OTC option.

Sound World, whose PSAP, alongside those of Soundhawk and Etymotic BEAN, performed nearly as well as traditional hearing aids in studies, says its direct-to-consumer hearing aid, PSAP, and forthcoming OTC hearing aid will differ in name only. “Our device is sold as a hearing aid, and the same identical device is sold as a PSAP. We intend to have the same device qualify as an OTC hearing aid,” says Basseas. “They’re identical devices in any way you look at them. I made them that way to prove a point. There’s no difference between the performance of these devices, only the way they are regulated.”

The quality of other forthcoming OTC hearing aids remains to be seen.

And hearing care professionals have concerns. First, a medical problem that needs to be addressed could be causing a hearing loss. Both audiologists and licensed hearing aid dispensers are trained to recognize these issues and show clients how to get the right care.

“If someone has an ear deformity, drainage from the ear, sudden hearing loss, dizziness, hearing loss in only one ear — which could be caused by a tumor on the hearing nerve — these are things that need to be investigated,” says Hogan. She echoes the concerns expressed by four hearing health care associations in a recent consensus paper they wrote in response to the coming OTC hearing aids.

But some hearing aid makers ready to get into the OTC market, including Basseas of Sound World, say audiologists who voice these concerns just want to protect their turf. “Based on this logic, you shouldn’t take OTC aspirin for fear it could be a brain tumor causing your headache,” he says. “Using this scare tactic, we stop people from using hearing aids as early as they can.”


What’s more, because so many people waive the recommended medical evaluation, the scientists who recommended the OTC category say there’s “no evidence that the evaluation or waiver of that evaluation provides any clinically meaningful benefit.”

Another concern among audiologists is that, given full control of their device, users will turn up the volume too high. “We don’t know that the volume is both [enough] to really help them the way it should and also at a safe level so that the consumer is protected against further hearing loss,” Hogan says.

This, too, is seen by some as turf defense and not a legitimate concern. “There is no documented evidence anywhere of this [type of hearing loss] ever happening,” Basseas says. “They are pushing restrictions on maximum volume on OTC hearing aids to protect their market.”

By the Numbers

15%: Percentage of U.S. adults ages 18 and older who have some level of hearing loss.

50%: Percentage of U.S. adults older than age 75 who have disabling hearing loss. For adults ages 65 to 74, it’s 25%; for 55- to 64-year-olds, it’s 8.5%.

2x: Men’s chances of hearing loss between the ages of 20 and 69, compared with women’s.

28.8 million: Estimated number of Americans who would benefit from hearing aids.

Find more articles, browse back issues, and read the current issue of WebMD Magazine.



National Institutes of Health: “Quick Statistics About Hearing.”

Tommy McDonell, Eargo customer, Southern Pines, NC.

Stavros Basseas, co-founder, Sound World Solutions.

Paul Kileny, PhD, director, Michigan Hearing, Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan.

Christian Gormsen, CEO, Eargo.

Cynthia Hogan, PhD, chair, Division of Audiology, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic.

Hearing Review.

Alzheimer’s & Dementia: “Longitudinal study of hearing loss and subjective cognitive function decline in men.”

Michigan Medicine: “The Lancet: One in three cases of dementia could be prevented by targeting risk factors from childhood onwards.”

Journal of the American Medical Association: “Personal Sound Amplification Products vs a Conventional Hearing Aid for Speech Understanding in Noise.” “Regulatory recommendations for OTC hearing aids: Safety and effectiveness consensus paper from hearing care associations.”

© 2019 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

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FDA Explains Pros, Cons of Permanent Birth Control

FRIDAY, Nov. 18, 2016 — Women need to carefully consider the benefits and risks of permanent birth control devices, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says.

The agency recently introduced labeling changes for one such device called Essure. It consists of flexible metal coils that are implanted into the fallopian tubes, which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Within about three months, tissue forms around the coils and blocks sperm from reaching the eggs.

Because the device is made with metal, women who are sensitive or allergic to nickel or other metals should be sure to let their doctor know about their allergy, the FDA said.

The labeling changes for Essure include a boxed warning and patient decision checklist to help ensure that women receive and understand the benefits and risks of the device in order to make an informed decision about whether to use it.

An important point is that Essure is not immediately effective in preventing pregnancy. Women have to use another form of birth control for at least three months after the device is implanted. After three months, women must have an X-ray to verify the device is placed correctly and blocking the fallopian tubes, the FDA said.

Typically, Essure implantation is done in a doctor’s office. The procedure doesn’t require an incision and can be done without general anesthesia.

There have been reports of serious complications, the FDA said, including: poking through the fallopian tubes or uterus; persistent pain after the procedure (including pain for weeks or months after the procedure); change in menstrual cycles; symptoms similar to those of allergic reactions; and symptoms similar to those in autoimmune diseases, such as joint pain and fatigue.

Some women with complications have had surgery to remove the device, the agency reported.

Another permanent birth control option is tubal ligation — having your fallopian “tubes tied.”

There are also long-acting reversible types of birth control such as the intrauterine device (IUD) and the birth control implant. Both last for several years or more, and are easy to use. If you want to become pregnant or want to stop using them, you can have the devices removed, according to the FDA.

Other types of birth control that women can consider include oral contraceptives, hormonal patches, vaginal rings, condoms and diaphragms.

“Whatever your choice in contraception, make sure you understand the risks and benefits of your options and discuss them with your health care provider,” an FDA news release advised.

More information

The U.S. Office on Women’s Health has more on birth control.

Posted: November 2016

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Cell Phones and Children: Pros and Cons

What to consider before you get your child a cell phone.

If you have a child older than 5, you’ve probably already heard the plea. “Can I have a cell phone?” your child asks. Or, “Why can’t I have a cell phone?”

No doubt about it: Cell phones are a great way to stay in touch anytime, anywhere. But is your child old enough for one?

That’s a tough call for many parents, because it’s not just about the child’s age.

So if you — and your child — are having this debate, here are some considerations to keep in mind.


You can’t beat the convenience. If your child has a cell phone, you can call or text him about where he is and what he’s doing, and your plans.

You may also feel safer knowing where your kids are. And in an emergency, a cell phone can be crucial if your child needs to reach you — or vice versa.

That’s partly why many parents are buying their kids cell phones. Twice as many children have cell phones now as in 2004.

Most teens — 85% of those aged 14 to 17 — have cell phones. So do 69% of 11-14 year olds, and 31% of kids aged 8-10, according to a 2010 survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

Kids may see having a phone as part of fitting in with their friends.

But there are also some potential downsides to consider.

Health Considerations


Cell phones work by using radio waves. That’s radiation (though it’s not like what you’d get from an X-ray or other medical use).

Does that affect health — especially if children start using them at a very young age, when their brains are still developing?

In 2011, an international study showed no link between cell phone use and brain tumors in teens and adolescents. However, the researcher pointed out that the people in that study didn’t use their phones as much as people do today.

Still, experts say longer studies are needed.

“It will take several decades to get conclusive evidence on this,” says Joel Moskowitz, PhD, director of the Center for Family and Community Health at UC Berkeley’s School of Public Health. 

The FDA’s web site states that “the scientific evidence does not show a danger to any users of cell phones from radiofrequency energy exposure, including children and teenagers.”

There are ways to reduce your exposure:

  • Spend less time on your phone.
  • When you’re on a call, use speaker mode or a headset.


If your child takes her cell phone with her at bedtime, will she actually go to sleep or stay up and text?

Pediatricians are seeing growing evidence that cell phones, especially those that allow kids to text, can disrupt children’s sleep patterns. In a recent survey, four out of five cell-owning teens sleep with their phone on or by their beds, and teens who text were 42% more likely than those who don’t to keep their device close at hand at night in case they got a text.

Sleep is important for growing kids. As a parent, you can set rules around this. A phone can’t wreck your child’s sleep if your child doesn’t have access to it after bedtime.

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4 months, 4 dealers, 4 cons and I’ve nearly given up trying to score weed

3 of them were friends at school who all sold me fake stuff and another was a guy who approached me in London (I live there) and his stuff was half fake and he sold it to me for a huge price (i was new back then).

I don’t think I’ll ever be able to find a dealer who will sell me quality and fair-priced bud.

Anyone got any last minute suggestions beforeI just settle for skanky old cigarettes?

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Here are some of its risks:
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