How to Grow Mass Scale Hemp in a Light Deprivation Greenhouse

The mainstream cannabis cultivation has taken over the hemp industry by storm, especially after many countries legalized weed. Hundreds of hemp cultivators now have greenhouses in their garden where they grow high-quality cannabis that they sell in local markets. But, when it comes to mass-scale production, one of the techniques that work wonders is the light deprivation method. Wondering how the flowers will grow without light? Here’s how the system works.

Hemp Cultivation Using Light Deprivation Technique

One of the advantages of the light deprivation method is it allows the farmer to alter the lighting schedules of the plant. This helps to force the plants into making buds as soon as possible. With the growing demand for hemp in various countries, the light deprivation method comes as a boon to meet such high requirements.

Multiple Harvests In One Year

Imagine yielding four to five harvests in a greenhouse within one year. That’s only possible if you follow the light deprivation method. You should also use a high-quality greenhouse, like the ones manufactured by Full Bloom Light Dep. These come with auto-light facilities so that you can change the lighting conditions and improve the speed at which the plants grow.

If you start sowing seeds in early May, your first harvest will be ready by the end of July. That’s the spring to mid-summer harvest that many farmers consider the best time to grow cannabis. However, you can sneak in another harvest between mid-summer and autumn. Sow seeds immediately after the first harvest and collect the yield by the end of October. This period is also known as natural harvest time.

Better Bud Quality

Compared to commercial hemp farmers growing cannabis outdoors, the bud quality of the hemp growing inside a light deprived greenhouse is far better. If you have multiple light dep. greenhouses, you can increase the yield significantly. This will help to produce better quality buds than the ones you find outdoors. Farmers who grow hemp outdoors can only get one harvest. But, you can manage to get up to five using the light dep. method. It not only increases the overall production but also ensure high-quality bud.

Reduces Catastrophic Failures

Every farmer has a fear at the back of their mind that maybe their crops will experience a catastrophic failure due to bug infestation or heatwave. While this is not impossible, you still have another harvest that can make up for a considerable loss. That is why multiple harvests are better than one. And, that is another reason why the light dep method in a greenhouse is the ideal way to grow mass-scale hemp. When you spread your harvest outdoors, you can’t control catastrophes like heatwaves and extreme rainfall.

So, if you are planning to expand your hemp production, don’t fiddle around with other techniques. Follow the light dep. method religiously, and you should see a satisfactory yield at the end of July and October. But, make sure you grow inside a high-quality greenhouse that supports light dep. technique.

Shane Dwyer
Author: Shane Dwyer
Shane Dwyer is a cannabis advocate who isn’t afraid to tell the world about it! You can find his views, rants, and tips published regularly at The 420 Times.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

How To Set Up A Home Grow Operation On A Budget Of Less Than $1,000

Consuming marijuana can be an expensive undertaking. Some every day ask themselves is it worth the costs to buy weed. Some may think, but what if they grow it, would it be cheaper? We, the people at where we try to get you the best bang for your green, crunched the numbers for you.

A gram of flower, which most stoners wouldn’t consider much, goes for about $ 3 for some swag to about $ 15+ for the dank stuff. A more seasoned smoker, buying an ounce would be paying around $ 100 – $ 300 for flower. An entrepreneurial smoker, as I hope we have a few here, would it make sense not to buy from your local dispensary or dealer, but rather to grow your own? What would this kind of endeavor take? Let’s dive into the costs and see if becoming a farmer is in your future.

Space to Grow

First thing first, do you have some free space either indoors or outdoors to grow. Let’s assume you have an extra closet or small bedroom available and want to start a grow operation in there. What would you need to start?


One thing about growing it is very energy intensive. A lot of rooms like a closet or spare bedroom may lack any outlets, or if it does have an outlet, it is on the main circuit breaker line. This overload causes problems because of the amount of energy need for the ventilation system, and lighting could trip the breaker.

I would recommend hiring an electrician to bring in electricity directly from your main fuse box so that the grow room is on its own circuit. An electrician usually costs about $ 50 to $ 100 an hour and depending on your home’s layout this operation make take a few hours. In states where marijuana is still illegal, it is also plus if you know a trustworthy electrician for this kind of job as there are not too many other needs for this kind of work. Don’t want to raise any red flags before you grow.


Water, the giver of life, surely water would be free. Sadly no. You will most likely be billed for your water usage by your town or city. In drier climates, like Las Vegas and San Diego, typically have higher water usage rates than places like Seattle and Portland, where the average annual rainfall is much higher. Low rainfall can drive up water prices in certain areas. Given the wide range of water prices across the United States, it is too hard to give a ballpark price, but your plants will need it unless they grow on brawndo.


If you remember your introduction to biology class from Freshman year, you’ll recall that plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. The leaves of the plants are a plant’s lungs, if they become clogged with the poisons pushed out during transpiration, they will die. Dead leaves mean dead marijuana plants. This is why it is important to have air flowing through your room with your plants.

Make sure during your planning phase you layout an extraction route. Hot air rises so make sure put your extractor fan on the top of the room. Use some flexible tubing to “aim” the exhaust to a safe area. For example, away from a nosy neighbor house. If you have a grow tent of 40’’ by 40’’ in your grow room or space, you will need a 6? exhaust fan, which will cost you about $ 100. The larger your grow tent, the larger exhaust fan you will need.

Growing medium

Most new growers make the mistake of limiting themselves to only using soil to grow cannabis plants. In fact, many cannabis growers prefer other growing mediums such as hydroponics, perlite with soil mixes, or coco. Let’s assume your mission is to keep your costs low and grow using some quality topsoil which will set you back about $ 20 bucks a bag.


There are many different types of lighting you can use to grow your marijuana plants. The big three are CFL, HID and LED. Again assuming a grow tent of 40’’ by 40’’ you need about the equivalent of a 400 HID grow light. This goes for about $ 300 on Amazon. I prefer LED to HID for several reasons. An equivalent LED light would cost about $ 200, so you would save on bulb cost. The biggest cost other than the bulb is your electric bill. It can be almost 50% to 75% cheaper using LED vs. HID. LED also have no filaments meaning they can go for longer without needing a replacement light. Also LED generate no heat, this can allow you to have a smaller exhaust fan system.


Feeding schedules can be specifically developed for the different stages in the marijuana plant growth. These schedules will make the difference in the amount of bud produced, so it is important to feed your plants right.

The basic elements a plant needs are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, magnesium, and calcium. Water brings in the rest with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. However, not all elements are created equally. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium or in the periodic element symbols N, P, K are the most important. When you purchase a bag of nutrients, you will often see the N-P-K ratio listed on the bag. During the growing cycle, this balance of N-P-K will change. Cannabis requires a higher nitrogen ratio during the vegetative and early flowering stage as it is the main component for growth. During flowering, you want a lower nitrogen and higher phosphorus N-P-K fertilizer ratio.  I am not going to get into all the details here as I am not farming expert by any means but to give you a rough idea you will need about two bags of the difference blends for each stage which will run about $ 15 a bag so $ 30 total.

Cannabis Seeds

There are many online seed banks around the world you can purchase seeds from all over. In many nations, it is easy to buy seeds online because the laws are friendly. But alas we live in the draconian United States of America. There are roughly 30 states that allow either medical marijuana or recreational marijuana, but marijuana remains a controlled substance at the federal level.

If you live in the US and attempt to purchase cannabis seeds online, you run the risk of having your seeds seized by Border Patrol. If this happens, most, but not all overseas online seed banks will send you another shipment to replace those that were seized.

It is actually more dangerous to send seeds within the United States. Recreational marijuana is legal in both Colorado and Washington, but there could be legal consequences if caught using the mail to send them from state to state. The safest course of action if you are in a state with legal recreational weed or medical marijuana is to buy marijuana seeds from a seed bank within your state.

These seeds are not cheap either. To buy cannabis seeds, It cost almost $ 10-12 per seed, meaning a dozen seeds will cost you about $ 144. You could buy 25 pumpkins seeds for $ 5, but come on how you going to smoke a pumpkin.

Conclusions: What’s the final cost? Grow vs. Buy

According to the, the median spend by an average customer was $ 647 annually. It is important to note that this study was done in Washington state based on legal users of cannabis.

Assuming you have a spare room to set up your grow area we are looking at a setup cost of $ 200 for the electrician to install a separate line, $ 100 for the exhaust fan, $ 20 for soil, $ 200 for LED lighting, $ 30 for fertilizer and $ 144 for seed. Toss in the support for the plant pots, pots and plastic tent cover for another $ 100 for a grand total set up cost of $ 794. That is just for the initial setup, you need to factor in the operating expenses of water, electricity and additional soil and fertilizer as ongoing expenses.

So, in conclusion, it may make sense if you can afford the upfront cost to set up your own grow operations versus buying recreational weed as normal and in the long term, your costs would be lower than as a consistency consumption.

Shane Dwyer
Author: Shane Dwyer
Shane Dwyer is a cannabis advocate who isn’t afraid to tell the world about it! You can find his views, rants, and tips published regularly at The 420 Times.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

Why is Growing indoors with hydroponics, grow tents and led lights becoming so popular

Benefits of Growing Indoors 
When the winter season arrives and you are dreaming of fresh fruits and vegetables from your garden, growing indoors makes this a reality and not a dream. Growing indoors can provide you and your family with fruits and vegetables all year long. There are added benefits of plants such as cleaning the air in your home and can improve the looks of any indoor space, makes indoor gardening a great idea. Plants are not hindered by the natural elements such wind, rain and the cold. You can set up a small area such as a windowsill set up a larger area such as a bench or table. Shelving can use used if you are limited in square footage allowing several layers of plants to be grown in the same area. Now that you are interested, let’s explore growing indoors.

Hydroponics is soilless growing. Why grow soilless you might be asking. Well, hydroponic yields produce faster and in greater quantities. How is this possible? The main reason is because the growers can create the ideal blend of nutrients for each specific plant. The nutrients are received by the plants roots directly allowing the plants to conserve energy not having to look for the nutrients. Since plants aren’t looking for nutrients in the soil, you can grow more plants in the same area. Using a sterile medium, Hydroponic growing eliminating pest infestations commonly associated with soil grown plants. The environment that plants are growing in is a stable environment with no sudden changes allowing the plants to better thrive.

Grow Tent 
A grow tent is a portable, reusable grow room that can allow you to set up a growing operation almost anywhere. You can grow year-round in a grow tent since it is climate controlled. Need humidity, not a problem, it will only be humid in your grow tent, not your whole house. The ability to regulate a specific area makes the grow tent energy efficient. Grow tents allow you to grow hydroponically or with soil. Like hydroponic growing, grow tents can prevent the infestation of pests. You still need to monitor the plants health, but you will see less infestations. The grow tent will keep the odors that can be associated with soil confined so your house will not smell like earth. Most grow tents come as a set making them a simple and easy solution to growing indoors.

No matter if you decide on using a grow tent or a windowsill, lighting is imperative for indoor growing. Plants need light to survive. When looking for lighting for your indoor garden, remember that plants absorb specific wavelengths of light. The light you choose needs to have the same wavelength that the sun provides which is why a regular light bulb will not work. Keep the light close to the plant, but not so close it will burn the plant. Most plants require about 14-16 hours of sunlight or simulated light in the case of indoor growing. Compact Fluorescent Lighting Systems or High Intensity Discharge Bulbs are the way to go when selecting lighting.

Why Grow Indoors 

Growing indoors is convenient. There are many great company’s out there to help you get started as such as Canada Grows Indoors LLC. No more watering several times a day since your plants are being grown in a controlled environment. Providing the ideal steady temperature allows your plants to thrive and produce more fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Growing indoors is a great hobby allowing you to produce the crops of your choice all year long.

Author: Karen Miller
Karen Miller is the founder and chief editor of She loves sharing her fast knowledge of indoor growing equipment with others.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

Balloons, Pills, Sleeves: Weight Loss Options Grow

DDW 2019, Digestive Disease Week, San Diego, CA, May 18-21.

Lisa Rivera, endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty patient, Manhattan.

CDC, NCHS Data Brief: “Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015-2016,” October 2017.

Christopher Thompson, MD, director of endoscopy, Brigham & Women’s Hospital; associate professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School.

Shelby Sullivan, MD, associate professor of medicine and director, Gastroenterology Metabolic and Bariatric Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.

Reem Sharaiha, MD, associate professor of medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine; assistant attending physician, New York-Presbyterian, New York City.

Andres Acosta, MD, PhD, senior associate consultant, gastroenterology and hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Lian Cunningham, spokesperson BAROnova Inc.

Stephanie Simon, spokesperson, Gelesis.

Mayo Clinic: “Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty.”

Obesity, Feb. 12, 2019.

Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, November 2018.

CDC: “The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity.”

Diane Utzman-O’Neill, director of marketing, ReShape Lifesciences Inc.

Obesity Surgery: “Efficacy of Endoscopic Interventions for the Management of Obesity: a Meta-analysis to Compare Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty, AspireAssist, and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal.”

FDA: “FDA approves AspireAssist obesity device,” “TransPyloric Shuttle/TransPyloric Shuttle Delivery Device – P180024.”

Aspire: “AspireAssist Cost and Insurance.”

Spatz Medical.

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Digestive Weight Loss Center: “Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty (Accordion) Procedure.”

UpToDate: “Patient Education: Weight Loss Surgery and Procedures.”

WebMD Health

Team Sports Could Help Traumatized Kids Grow Into Healthy Adults

By Maureen Salamon

HealthDay Reporter

THURSDAY, May 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Coming from a broken home or suffering abuse can traumatize a child, but new research suggests team sports might be just the medicine these kids need.

Tracking U.S. health data from nearly 10,000 people, researchers found that teens who experienced childhood trauma and played team sports had lower odds of depression and anxiety as young adults.

“As a pediatrician going through training, you see a lot of children and families who face these challenges, and often we don’t have medical prescriptions to recommend,” said study author Dr. Molly Easterlin. She’s a clinical instructor in pediatrics at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and a fellow of the UCLA National Clinician Scholars Program in Los Angeles.

“Medications don’t necessarily treat these experiences and the mental health outcomes that result,” Easterlin added. “So, trying to find other interventions that may be effective is important.”

Physical and mental health problems are more common throughout life for people who’ve faced adverse childhood experiences, such as physical and sexual abuse, emotional neglect, parental alcohol abuse, parental incarceration or living with a single parent, prior research has shown.

About half of all American children experience one of these traumas and one-quarter experience two or more, according to the study authors. But little research had examined what factors improve health outcomes for children exposed to adverse situations.

Easterlin and her colleagues used the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to compare the prevalence of three different adult mental health problems — including a depression or anxiety diagnosis or depressive symptoms — among 9,668 people with adverse childhood experiences who did and didn’t participate in team sports during adolescence.

By early adulthood (ages 24 to 32), those who’d participated in team sports between grades 7 and 12 had better mental health outcomes, the findings showed. About 17% had been diagnosed with depression, compared with 22% of peers who hadn’t played team sports, while about 12% received an anxiety diagnosis versus 17% of their peers.

Meanwhile, nearly 22% of those who’d played team sports during adolescence had current depressive symptoms, compared to 27.5% of peers who hadn’t played team sports.


Why the difference? Easterlin said team sports can increase self-esteem and help vulnerable adolescents feel socially accepted and connected to their school environment. All of these benefits can contribute to a sense of resilience, she added.

Amanda Paluch is a postdoctoral research fellow in the department of preventive medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. She said it’s “really striking” how far into the future team sports participation can affect mental health among children facing childhood trauma.

But it makes sense, she said, not only because team sports foster personal qualities but also because it provides positive role models in coaches and peers.

“Students who might be experiencing adverse child experiences might not have those role models in their life. And, therefore, this can help them become more resilient,” said Paluch, who co-authored an editorial accompanying the study.

Paluch and Easterlin agreed that, given the apparent mental health benefits, team sports participation should be made affordable for adolescents from all family income levels. Currently, expensive tryout leagues are common, with certain sports facilities off-limits to those unable to pay high fees, they said.

Easterlin said the findings should also spur pediatricians, parents and community members to promote team sports participation for these kids, along with “other programs that provide psychological and social support.”

The study was published online May 28 in JAMA Pediatrics.

WebMD News from HealthDay


SOURCES: Molly Easterlin, M.D., fellow, UCLA National Clinician Scholars Program, and clinical instructor, pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles; Amanda Paluch, Ph.D., postdoctoral research fellow, department of preventive medicine, Center for Translational Metabolism and Health, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago; May 28, 2019,JAMA Pediatrics, online

Copyright © 2013-2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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WebMD Health

New Brain Cells Grow Later In Life Than We Think

By Robert Preidt

HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, May 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) — New research delivers fresh hope for everyone who struggles with a fading memory: Neurons continue to form well into old age, even in people with mental impairments or Alzheimer’s disease.

“We found that there was active neurogenesis [new neurons forming] in the hippocampus of older adults well into their 90s,” said study author Orly Lazarov, a professor of anatomy and cell biology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

“The interesting thing is that we also saw some new neurons in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive [thinking] impairment,” she added in a university news release.

The findings could lead to new treatments for mental decline in older adults, the researchers said.

In the study, Lazarov and her colleagues examined hippocampus tissue from the brains of 18 people, average age 90.6 years, after they died.

The hippocampus is involved in the formation of memories and in learning.

On average, there were about 2,000 neural stem cells and 150,000 developing neurons in each brain.

While people with mental impairments and Alzheimer’s disease did have new neurons, their levels were significantly lower than in people with normal brain function, the researchers noted.

This is the first evidence of significant numbers of neural stem cells and newly developing neurons in the hippocampus of elderly adults, even in those with disorders that affect that part of the brain.

The researchers also found that people who scored better on tests of mental skills had more newly developing neurons in the hippocampus than those who scored lower on the tests, regardless of the level of disease in the brain.

“The mix of the effects of pathology and neurogenesis is complex and we don’t understand exactly how the two interconnect, but there is clearly a lot of variation from individual to individual,” Lazarov said.

“The fact that we found that neural stem cells and new neurons are present in the hippocampus of older adults means that if we can find a way to enhance neurogenesis, through a small molecule, for example, we may be able to slow or prevent cognitive decline in older adults, especially when it starts, which is when interventions can be most effective,” she said.

The findings were published May 23 in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

WebMD News from HealthDay


SOURCE: University of Illinois at Chicago, news release, May 24, 2019

Copyright © 2013-2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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WebMD Health

Why Your Grow Lights Should be From California LightWorks

Whether you’re looking to upgrade your current grow lights or you’re getting into growing for the first time, finding the best lighting option is no small endeavor. There are so many considerations . . . and so much information to juggle.

If you’ve decided on LED lights, congratulations! You’ve just narrowed down your search significantly, and you’ve made an excellent choice.

Top-quality LED grow lights offer the best option in terms of energy efficiency and longevity. Even better, spectrum variable LED lights equip you with total control over your output. You can adjust the light spectrum for every phase of growth, enabling you to increase yields, manage potency, and help your plants thrive.

But even though you’ve narrowed your search down to LED lights, there are still a lot of options out there. So we’ve compiled this list of our favorite LED lights for each type of grow operation.

Best LED Grow Light for In-Home Growing

If you’re looking for a personal LED grow light and aren’t prepared to go heavy-duty with the SolarSystem® series, California LightWorks offers an affordable, quality option for home growers by way of the SolarXtreme® series. These full-spectrum lights feature the exclusive Optigrow light spectrum as well as the new COB (chip on board) LED design that makes these lights high-efficiency at a much lower cost than typical LED grow lights. The best light for you depends largely on the needs for your specific setup, but we’re suckers for extensive coverage, so we especially love this one:

The SolarXtreme® 1000

This light has the highest wattage in the series at 800 watts. It also has the greatest coverage area at an impressive 25 square feet. The SolarXtreme® 1000 was designed with grow tents and home-growing in mind, so if you have a small scale operation, you know this LED grow light has been made for your exact needs.

With this state-of-the-art personal LED grow light, you can expect:

  • Low heat signature to reduce energy costs and protect your yield
  • 5’ x 5’ coverage area
  • 1-year warranty
  • 500 PPFD Distance of 38”
  • 800 PPFD Distance of 28”
  • Direct AC drive technology (no need for LED drivers)

If you’re looking for a smaller unit, lower wattage, or need less coverage, you should also check out the SolarXtreme® 250 and the SolarXtreme® 500.

Best LED Grow Light for Commercial Indoor Operation

Every LED light in California LightWorks’ SolarSystem® series is constructed with top shelf Osram LEDs for the highest efficiency in the market. They are manufactured in the U.S. and feature an exclusive Digital Spectrum Control. We love every light in this series, but for simplicity’s sake, we’ll just get you caught up on our very favorite.

In-home growers take note: While these lights were designed with commercial operations in mind, their beginner-friendly design and U.S.-based customer support makes the SolarSystem® series a great option for personal operations as well.

SolarSystem® 1100 UVB

The SolarSystem® 1100 UVB should be first choice for the grower who’s not messing around. This product combines California LightWorks’ most powerful LED light, the  SolarSystem® 1100, with the SolarSystem® UVB for the best possible yields. The package includes 1 SolarSystem® 1100, 2 SolarSystem® UVB, and a pair of brackets for mounting the UVBs to the 1100. This unit can be used as a single grow light system, or several of the 1100 UVBS can easily be chained together for a large-scale grow operation.

Here’s a quick glimpse at the two lights that make up the SolarSystem® 1100 UVB:

The SolarSystem® 1100 features:

  • Fully programmable spectrum control
  • 0-100% dimming
  • High efficiency (2.23 umol/j and 0-800-W power consumption)
  • Replacement for 1000-watt HPS, reducing energy use by 40%

The SolarSystem® UVB features:

  • 25 watts of UVB from T5 flourescent
  • Increased potency in plants when used during last few weeks of flowering

With these products combined in the SolarSystem® 1100 UVB, you can expect:

  • Easy installation
  • Maximized photosynthesis
  • Higher yields and a better quality product
  • Active thermal management system with peak operating temperature of 107 degrees
  • 4×4 bloom coverage area
  • Maximum wattage: 24 W
  • 5-Year Warranty
  • Lifespan of 50,000+ hours

Best LED Grow Light for Greenhouse Operation

Supplemental greenhouse lighting can be . . . complicated. You need to find a light versatile enough to give your plants the light they need in every season and at any hour without interfering with their access to natural light. For these special needs, we love this light from California LightWorks:

The GHPro340

Created specifically for use in greenhouses, the GHPro340 features a streamlined design to prevent shadowing. Even with its slim profile, this supplemental LED grow light covers a wide area and boasts industry-leading efficiency.

Here are all the nitty-gritty details on this powerhouse of a light:

  • High efficiency: maximum 340 watts with up to 3.0 micromoles per joule
  • Chainable with potential for up to 10 fixtures per power drop
  • Fully integrated drivers
  • Passive cooling, no fans
  • Integrates with wireless photo sensor for automatic light balancing
  • Wireless two-channel variable spectrum control
  • Made in California
  • 5-year warranty

No matter how large or small your operation is, you can always find the most cutting edge LED grow lights at California LightWorks. These lighting systems offer the highest efficiency and best quality on the market. None of our LEDs are made in China, and all our products are assembled in the U.S. with U.S.-based customer support.

If you’d like to learn more about our products or ask questions about finding the best spectrum variable LED grow lights for your unique operation, please feel free to contact us at any time. We love talking to growers, and we love helping you find the perfect solution for your needs.

Shane Dwyer
Author: Shane Dwyer
Shane Dwyer is a cannabis advocate who isn’t afraid to tell the world about it! You can find his views, rants, and tips published regularly at The 420 Times.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

Helping the Young Mind Grow

MONDAY, April 15, 2019 — Whether you call it snowplow, bulldozer or helicopter parenting, these child-rearing styles have gotten a lot of attention recently, and the acknowledgment that they may not be the best way to raise a confident, well-adjusted young person.

Moving obstacles out of a child’s way is not the same as providing the nurturing he or she needs.

Scientists know that one very important period for brain growth occurs during the preschool years. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis analyzed a series of brain scans of children from this age through the early teen years. The aim: to learn how mom’s early support affected development of the hippocampus, the area of the brain critical to learning, memory and regulating emotions, such as stress.

The investigators saw a sharper rise in the volume of the hippocampus in kids who had early nurturing, and found that these kids were healthier emotionally when they entered their teens. Hippocampus volume was smaller in teens whose mothers were less supportive during the preschool period, even if the moms were more nurturing in their elementary or middle school years.

So how can you best show support for your children? Start with a positive approach, and parent with your child’s emotional well-being in mind. Offer words of encouragement and praise as they work on and then complete tasks.

Show affection as they go through their struggles and resist getting impatient as they work at a task — nurturing also means letting children explore to find solutions on their own, whether it’s learning to do a puzzle, getting dressed or tackling a more challenging activity. Remind yourself that when you provide the answers they need, you run the risk of limiting the range of their problem-solving skills.

More information

Learn more about important parenting research from the Greater Good Science Center at UC Berkeley.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: April 2019 – Daily MedNews

Alcohol Problems Grow as Booze Gets a Bigger Kick

Feb. 14, 2019 — Americans may not be drinking much more than they used to — but they’re drinking more potent stuff.

And that trend toward higher-alcohol drinks may be part of what’s driving an increase in alcohol-related deaths and illnesses, according to new research.

Sales of wine and liquor have gone up, while beer sales are largely flat. And more of the beer-drinking dollar is going toward varieties with a higher percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV), whether they’re high-gravity craft beers or corner-store malt liquor.

“There’s been this observation recently of increases in alcohol-related problems like increases in alcoholic liver disease and mortality and emergency room visits related to alcohol, but we haven’t seen a similar increase in alcohol consumption,” says Priscilla Martinez, PhD, a public health and epidemiology researcher at the California-based Alcohol Research Group.

Estimates of how much Americans drank grew only 6% between 2002 and 2013, or about two drinks per person per month, says Martinez, who led the new study. But drinking-related health problems soared during that time. Meanwhile, estimates used to find out how much alcohol is in a typical drink — a 12-ounce beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor — “have been static for a long period of time,” Martinez says.

“The estimates that exist now have had the same alcohol-by-volume values since the 1970s,” she says. “Maybe that’s why we’re not seeing this increase in alcohol consumption, because we’re not calculating it as precisely as we should.”

It’s only in the past decade or two that most states allowed higher-alcohol beers to be sold in restaurants and stores. Most had an ABV limit of 6% or 7%. In other words, those estimates do not reflect that a 12-ounce beer with an alcohol by volume of 10% has about twice the alcohol content of a 5-ounce glass of wine.

Using federal data, state liquor regulators, and industry statistics, Martinez and her colleagues found consumer tastes have been shifting toward higher-proof booze.


It’s not just microbrews, either. The alcohol content of the wines and liquor people are buying went up as well. And more people were buying cordials and liqueurs. That might reflect a preference for more liquor and fancy cocktails among younger drinkers, “but this work didn’t speak to that exactly,” Martinez says.

Overall, the average alcohol by volume grew about 2% for beer between 2002 and 2016, 6% for wine, and 4% for liquor. That may not seem like much, but it can add up quickly for people who drink regularly, Martinez says.

“Even if it’s just a 1% increase in ABV, you’re drinking that every day,” she says. “That means over the course of the year, you’re going to be ingesting many more grams of ethanol, pure alcohol, than you would have even if it’s a lower ABV.”

Keep Tabs on Alcohol Volume

Deaths from alcohol-related liver disease have jumped about 40% since 2006, and drinking-related emergency room visits are up more than 60%, the study found. Martinez said her study doesn’t directly link that increase in alcohol content to alcohol-related illnesses, but Richard Grucza, an epidemiologist at Washington University in St. Louis who studies alcohol use, said the study may help explain the apparent mismatch between consumption and health effects.

“The bad outcomes for alcohol are increasing at a rate much higher than consumption itself,” he says. And that suggests consumers may need to be warier of what they’re pouring.

“People don’t necessarily measure what they’re pouring into their drink or when they go to the bar,” says Grucza, who wasn’t involved in the new study.

While most mass-produced beers like Budweiser and Coors top out at 5% alcohol by volume, some craft beers on the market now contain more than 10% alcohol. At a bar, “They’ll serve something like that in a smaller glass,” Grucza says. But at home, “When people drink a bottle of beer, they just think it’s a bottle of beer.”



Priscilla Martinez, PhD, Alcohol Research Group.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research: “New Estimates of the Mean Ethanol Content of Beer, Wine, and Spirits Sold in the United States Show a Greater Increase in Per Capita Alcohol Consumption than Previous Estimates.”

Morning Consult

Copyright © 2013-2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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WebMD Health

Ask a Stoner: Can I Grow Hemp at Home Now?

Dear Stoner: Now that hemp is legal, can I grow it in my yard or inside my home?

Dear Stan: We wish, but it still depends on where you live. The 2018 Farm Bill did legalize hemp farming across the country — if you want to farm hemp or grow it for research purposes, you’ll need a license from your state department of agriculture — but it didn’t address federal law regarding residential growing.

Don't expect to see hemp in your neighbor's front yard.EXPAND

Don’t expect to see hemp in your neighbor’s front yard.

Danielle Lirette

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If you live in a state like Colorado, which allows growing cannabis at home for medical or recreational purposes, and you qualify as a medical marijuana patient or are at least 21 years of age, then you can grow hemp under your legal cannabis plant count. However, that cultivation would have to be built as if the hemp were THC-rich marijuana, which would require a private, enclosed space and lots of money to set it up.

Marijuana Deals Near You

Given that most state plant counts don’t go higher than three flowering plants per person (six plants overall), you probably wouldn’t get much fiber from them, though you could roast the seeds. However, some hemp strains can carry CBD percentages in the high 20s and look strikingly similar to their seedless THC cousins. If you’re interested in high-CBD flower and concentrates without the high, those could be worth a shot.

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Ask a Stoner: What Are Some High-Yielding Strains I Can Grow?

Dear Stoner: What are some high-yielding strains available on the recreational market? I’m new to growing, and I can use all the help I can get.

Dear Devon: There are plenty of strains that can yield over two pounds per plant, but the size of the harvest will still depend on lighting, nutrients and other techniques and variables essential to high yields. All that talk aside, some strains are definitely stronger producers than others. The real obstacle is finding these on the recreational market, as seeds and clones aren’t sold at most dispensaries in Colorado.

Many growers use clones of certain strains instead of sprouting seeds.EXPAND

Many growers use clones of certain strains instead of sprouting seeds.

Courtesy of Native Roots

Big Bud, Blue Dream and Critical Mass are easy choices for high-yielding plants, but they have some drawbacks: Big Bud lacks flavor, Critical Mass can get so big that the buds mold, and Blue Dream is so widespread that it’s hard to trust the genetics. But other popular strains such as Amnesia Haze, Hash Plant, Northern Lights, Sour Diesel and White Widow are also high-yielders, relatively easy for beginning growers, and can be bought as clones or seeds. Many of these have been cross-bred with each other or could be bred with other high-yielding strains, so keep that in mind when shopping.

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California Typhus Outbreak Continues to Grow

Oct. 10, 2018 — Public health officials in Los Angeles are still working to control an outbreak of typhus, a bacterial disease spread by infected fleas, in the downtown area and elsewhere in the sprawling county.

From mid-July until early October, nine cases of typhus have been observed in the downtown area alone, says Sharon Balter, MD, director of the division of communicable disease for the L.A. County Department of Public Health. Downtown Los Angeles has a large population of homeless people, and while all nine patients have a history of living or working in downtown L.A., not all those affected are homeless, she says.

“Homelessness, crowded housing, poor hygiene, poor toiletry habits” all make it more likely to get typhus, says Aaron Glatt, MD, chairman of medicine and hospital epidemiologist for South Nassau Communities Hospital, Oceanside, NY.

While typhus is normally seen throughout the county, that number of cases is unusually high in such a short period of time, she says. From January until early October, 59 cases have been documented. “In 2017, there were 67 cases for the whole year,” Balter says. “So if we continue [seeing cases], we might exceed the number from last year.”

Nearby, Pasadena has reported an additional 20 cases of typhus, up to four times as many as the city typically sees each year.

Typhus is “easily treated with antibiotics,” Balter says. “But people can become very sick if they don’t get prompt treatment.”

About Typhus

The disease in the L.A. outbreak is known as murine typhus and can spread to people from infected feces of fleas. Those feces have bacteria called Rickettsia typhi, according to the CDC.

When these infected feces are rubbed accidentally into scrapes or cuts in the skin, people become sick. In L.A. County, the health department says, typhus infects fleas found on dogs, cats, rats, and opossums. Animals carrying typhus themselves do not get sick.

The disease is not spread from person to person.

Symptoms usually come on within 2 weeks of infection. Those affected report fever, chills, headache, sometime a rash, and nausea and vomiting, he says. The symptoms are vague, and people may mistake them for other problems, such as the flu or other “bugs,” Glatt says.

Blood tests or a skin biopsy can help diagnose the disease, he says.

The CDC says most people will recover without treatment, but some cases may be severe. If left untreated, severe cases can lead to damage in the liver, kidneys, lungs, and brain.

The treatment is a 7- to 10-day course of antibiotics, usually doxycycline, says Glatt, who’s also a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. “It’s very cheap” and effective. But it’s best if typhus is caught early. The disease is rarely fatal, but some people need to be hospitalized.

Avoiding Typhus

Balter urges people to try to prevent the disease by using flea control products on pets. The county plans to distribute flea collars to homeless people in L.A. for use on their pets, she says.

Balter says to remember to use EPA-registered flea repellents, and make sure you don’t leave pet food outdoors that would draw in stray animals. Also, keep garbage cans covered to avoid attracting rodents and other animals.


Aaron Glatt, MD, spokesman, Infectious Diseases Society of America; chairman of medicine and hospital epidemiologist, South Nassau Communities Hospital, Oceanside, NY.

Sharon Balter, MD, director, division of communicable disease, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health.

CDC: “Murine Typhus.”

City of Pasadena, CA: “Elevated Levels of Flea-Borne Typhus.”

Los Angeles County Department of Public Health news release: “Public Health Reports Several Case of Flea-Borne Typhus.”

© 2018 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

WebMD Health

Why the Denver Botanic Gardens Doesn’t Grow Hemp

The Denver Botanic Gardens spans 24 acres, with seventeen gardens showcasing plants that thrive in Colorado’s arid climate — and that’s only counting the main location on York Street. The Denver Botanic Gardens also runs Chatfield Farms, a 700-acre native-plant refuge and working farm in Jefferson County, as well as a conservatory for alpine plants and bristlecone pines on Mount Evans.

Those areas “reflect an ever-widening diversity of plants from all corners of the world,” according to the organization, while also focusing on local flora.

The reason for marijuana’s exclusion is understandable: The plant is still illegal federally, and the DBG doesn’t want to get caught up in a political mess. But hemp, which is legal to grow in Colorado under both state and federal law, thanks to 2014’s Farm Bill, is still left out of the mix.

A common crop centuries ago, hemp is a growing industry these days; industrial production has skyrocketed over the past few years, and much of that is taking place in Colorado. In 2016 and 2017, Colorado accounted for more acreage dedicated to growing hemp than any state in the country, according to the Vote Hemp organization, nearly reaching 10,000 acres last year. And with the introduction of high-CBD strains, hemp flowers can be just as visually striking as their THC-laden counterparts.

Despite Colorado’s quickly growing affinity for hemp, the DBG won’t be featuring the plant in its exhibits any time soon. A week of back-and-forth messaging with its communications staff didn’t net much elaboration.

“We do not grow hemp at York Street or Chatfield Farms,” explains communications manager Erin Bird. “Since we do not grow marijuana, it is natural that we would also not grow hemp. We have no plans of growing it at the Gardens.”

But while the DBG continues to ban hemp, other botanical institutions are starting to come around.

Last summer, the University of Colorado Boulder and the Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists teamed up for an exhibit showcasing botanical illustrations of marijuana and hemp, with artist Susan Fisher even taking some hemp seeds home so she could try growing them. Fisher, who had a hard time persuading some of her colleagues to participate because of the stigma surrounding hemp and marijuana, says she understands why the DBG would abstain from controversy. “There must be huge controversy over how to interpret a hemp exhibit to the public. So many people go right to the [drug argument] without realizing this is different,” she explains. “It’s in the ‘it’s not worth the trouble’ basket. Too bad, to not get this useful plant back into cultivation, where it can do so much good.”

However, the DBG wouldn’t be the first botanic garden to grow marijuana or hemp if it chose to. In 2014, London’s Kew Gardens included cannabis as part of a mind-altering plants exhibit, while the University of Virginia and George Washington’s Mount Vernon have recently partnered to grow hemp on the founding father’s estate — just as George Washington himself was reported to have done.

Colorado industrial-hemp farmer Gabe Rimey says he loves and appreciates the DBG’s botany education, calling it “an incredible space to learn.” But Rimey, who farms high-CBD hemp plants in Douglas County, believes the DBG could educate visitors even further.

Gabe Rimey tends to his CBD-rich varieties of hemp inside his greenhouse cultivation in Franktown.EXPAND

Gabe Rimey tends to his CBD-rich varieties of hemp inside his greenhouse cultivation in Franktown.

Courtesy of Homestead Organics

“I have always wondered why they don’t grow cannabis or hemp for educational purposes. I’m not talking plots of it, but just a plant or two so that people can simply enjoy the botany of it. I mean, grow a high-THC cultivar and a hemp plant right next to each other, and no one would know the difference — but we could educate people on the selective breeding of the cannabis plant for certain cannabinoids,” he explains. “They’re growing hemp on Mount Vernon, so why not in an educational garden in the state that revolutionized the modern cannabis industry?”

Colorado isn’t the only state to welcome hemp; Oregon, Washington, Kentucky and Tennessee, among others, have all jumped into the hemp trade. We couldn’t find any botanic gardens in the aforementioned states that are growing hemp or marijuana (reach out if you know of one), but the plant’s exclusion could be part of a stylistic choice at botanic gardens that place heavy value on ornamental horticulture, according to Paul Cappiello, executive director of Yew Dell Botanical Gardens in Louisville, Kentucky.

“There are many botanic gardens out there that present exhibits and conduct research on economic botany or horticulture, and for those institutions, hemp is a natural. But for us it doesn’t fit very well within our mission,” he explains in an email. “Our display gardens are designed for maximum visual impact, and we focus on accomplishing that with plants that are highly sustainable — pest resistant, requiring minimal inputs (fertilizer and supplemental irrigation, etc.) — and showing excellent adaptability to our climate.”

Cappiello doesn’t totally dismiss the idea of adding hemp, though: “Now, if we came across a dwarf, red-leafed hemp plant with bright-yellow buds that didn’t seed around and was highly drought-tolerant…we’d be all over it!”

While DBG horticulturists don’t have any plans for adding hemp to their collection, they will teach you how to add it to yours. Educational classes on growing hemp were offered over the summer, Bird points out, with students learning over a six-hour course how to prepare hemp clones and care for them.

Will those courses be offered next year? The summer 2019 schedule for the Denver Botanic Gardens won’t be out for several months. Watch for updates.

Toke of the Town