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ADHD Rates Doubled Among U.S. Adults Over 10 Years

By Robert Preidt
HealthDay Reporter

FRIDAY, Nov. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — If the latest statistics are any indication, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is no longer an issue for children only.

Over a 10-year period, ADHD rates more than doubled among American adults, new research shows.

However, the rate among children remains much higher than in adults.

“While we can’t pinpoint the source of the increase in ADHD rates in adults, we can surmise that it has to do with growing recognition of ADHD in the adult populations by doctors and service providers, as well as increased public awareness of ADHD overall,” said study co-author Dr. Michael Milham. He is vice president of research at the Child Mind Institute, in New York City.

For the study, researchers analyzed data from more than 5 million Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients, and found that the percentage of adults with a diagnosis of ADHD rose from 0.43% in 2007 to 0.96% in 2016.

White adults showed a larger increase — 0.67% to 1.42% — than those in other racial/ethnic groups.

Adults with other mental health conditions — such as depression, and bipolar, anxiety or eating disorders — were more likely to have ADHD. The researchers also found that adults with ADHD had higher rates of health care use and sexually transmitted infections.

Meanwhile, ADHD diagnoses among children aged 5 to 11 rose from 2.96% in 2007 to 3.74% in 2016, a 26% increase.

The study was published online Nov. 1 in JAMA Network Open.

“More work needs to be done to better understand why rates are higher in white adults, particularly whether there are deficiencies in detection and diagnoses among non-white adults,” Milham said in a journal news release.

“And,” he added, “we must develop more effective diagnostic tools and standards for adults, who, in general, remain more challenging to diagnose than children.”

Study lead author Dr. Winston Chung, a psychiatrist with Kaiser Permanente in San Francisco, noted that people in some cultures are less likely to regard certain behaviors as a disorder or to seek help for them.

“It’s always been just understood that different cultures and races might vary in meaningful ways in how they cope with stress or expressing emotions,” Chung said.

However, “this is something we don’t actually have definitive answers to,” and more research is needed, he added.

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Sources

SOURCE:JAMA Network Open, news release, Nov. 1, 2019

Copyright © 2013-2018 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Lawsuit Against DEA Over Medical Marijuana Research Dismissed

A federal court has tossed out a lawsuit against the Drug Enforcement Administration that claimed the agency was stalling medical marijuana research.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit dismissed a lawsuit filed in June by the Scottsdale Research Institute that claimed the DEA was hampering federally approved marijuana studies by stalling cannabis cultivation applications. Led by Dr. Sue Sisley, the Scottsdale Research Institute had hoped that the lawsuit would force the U.S. Attorney General and the DEA to process its application to grow marijuana for clinical research.

The suit had argued that the DEA has created a monopoly around federally licensed marijuana research by requiring that researchers only use marijuana from the University of Mississippi for their studies. According to Sisley, federally licensed marijuana researchers are limited to low-grade cannabis without proper variety, which can compromise studies about medical marijuana and its effects, and how the plant is realistically grown and used. Sisley says that the poor quality of the official test marijuana affected the accuracy of her studies on the plant’s potential treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

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It’s been more than three years since the DEA  announced that it was opening the process to consider additional producers, but so far, none have been approved. In August, the agency announced it would begin to “facilitate and expand scientific and medical research for marijuana in the United States” by expediting the review of those applications, but no timeline was given, and no applications have been approved since then. Instead, the DEA announced a public comment period, which ended yesterday, October 28. Now, the DEA has ninety days to rule on the applications.

In dismissing the suit, the appeals court ruled that with its recent actions, the DEA has successfully executed its responsibilities by moving along the application process, making the case “moot.”

But if there are additional delays, one of the attorneys involved in the lawsuit told Marijuana Moment that it could return.


Toke of the Town

Sheep take over streets of Madrid for annual migration

A man stands behind fences as a flock of sheep walks past during the annual sheep parade through Madrid, Spain, October 20, 2019. REUTERS/Sergio Perez

MADRID (Reuters) – Sheep replaced traffic on the streets of Madrid on Sunday as shepherds steered their flocks through the heart of the Spanish capital, following ancient migration routes.

The annual event, which started in 1994, allows shepherds to exercise their right to use traditional routes to migrate their livestock from northern Spain to more southerly pastures for winter grazing.

The route would have taken them through undeveloped countryside a few centuries ago, but today it cuts through Madrid’s bustling city center and along some of its most famous streets.

Sheep farmers pay a nominal charge in symbolic acknowledgement of a 1418 agreement with the city council that set a fee of 50 maravedis – medieval coins – per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol square and Gran Via street.

The herd includes 2,000 merino sheep and 100 goats.

Reporting by Jessica Jones; Editing by David Goodman

Reuters: Oddly Enough

Stricter Rules Loom Over THC Vape Products in Colorado

The recent outbreak of lung illnesses connected to THC vaporization products is pushing the Colorado Marijuana Enforcement Division to implement new regulations that could include the prohibition of certain vaping additives in the regulated marketplace.

New rules banning the production and sale of cannabis vape products containing polyethylene glycol (PEG), vitamin E acetate and medium chain triglycerides (MCT oil) were proposed by the MED on October 7, according to the agency, with the proposed rules up for public discussion on Tuesday, October 15.

The proposed regulations also include additional labeling requirements for concentrates or products intended to be inhaled through a vaporizer or metered dose inhaler, according to MED rule-making documents, mandating that vaping additives be listed on the label, which would also be required to include the statement “Not approved by the FDA.”

Although most members of the pot industry expect the ban to be approved, MED spokesperson Shannon Gray notes, “These are proposed rules, which are not in effect until adopted and signed by the State Licensing Authority.”

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After weeks of reports of lung illnesses suffered by consumers of nicotine and THC oil vaping products, public health officials face more pressure to react — but a definitive cause of the problems hasn’t been identified. On Friday, October 11, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Deputy Director Anne Schuchat announced that 1,299 cases across the country, 26 of them ending in death, have been linked to vaping since the outbreak began, but health officials continue to look for exactly which chemicals or devices are leading to the health issues.

Most of the deaths and hospital visits are linked to THC vaping products obtained on the black market, made with the additives in the MED’s crosshairs as well as toxic pesticides and other harmful chemicals. As of October 2, nine reported hospitalizations in Colorado have been linked to vaping, with some patients reporting THC use and others citing nicotine. While the vast majority of hospitalizations for THC products have been linked to black-market cartridges with traces of harmful pesticides and additives, at least one death was reportedly connected to a legal product purchased from a dispensary in Oregon.

The chemicals banned by the MED haven’t been explicitly fingered as the culprits, but some cannabis business owners and health officials aren’t waiting until they are. In late September, Medicine Man dispensaries announced that its stores would no longer sell pre-filled vape cartridges containing vitamin E or PEG. The dispensary chain’s parent company, Medicine Man Technologies, was a leading force pushing the MED’s proposed ban.

“That’s just a start. It’s a good start, but they should also ban propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin,” says MMT chemistry director Dr. Tyrell Towle. “They’re not necessary to be used with cannabis for vaporization. You can create products for vaporization that don’t have these additives.”

According to Towle, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment’s cannabis science and policy work group — which comprises public health officials and industry stakeholders — had been trying to define potentially dangerous vaping additives and ingredients over a year ago, but “it wasn’t as pressing at the time, and there was a lot of pushback from industry members who still used some of those ingredients,” he notes.

“We can always bring them back if we can get the research funding and do eventually find out these are safe, although I doubt they are,” Towle adds.

The proposed vaping restrictions are part of a much larger set of new regulations that have been part of MED rulemaking throughout the summer and fall, including requirements for social consumption business licenses and dispensary delivery services. 


Toke of the Town

Doubt Over Long-Term Use of Hormone Rx for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

TUESDAY, Sept. 17, 2019 — Running contrary to current guidelines, new research suggests that use of hormone-suppressing treatment over the long term may not help some men battling recurrent prostate cancer, and may even cause harm.

In fact, the study found that long-term hormone therapy was tied to a raised risk of death from other causes for some patients who received it.

Blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may help predict which men might benefit — and which men might not — from long-term hormone therapy following surgery, said a team led by Dr. Daniel Spratt of the University of Michigan Cancer Center, in Ann Arbor.

“We found that the lower the PSA, the more harm the patient experienced,” explained Spratt, who is research professor of radiation oncology and chair of the Genitourinary Clinical Research Program at the center. “The higher the PSA, the more likely the patient was to benefit from hormone therapy because it decreased their chances of dying from prostate cancer and resulted in improved overall survival rates.”

The study was presented Sunday at the annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), in Chicago.

Because prostate tumors grow faster in the presence of hormones such as testosterone, therapies that lower hormone levels are often offered to men as a way to slow the cancer’s spread. However, these treatments can come with side effects, such as urinary incontinence or sexual dysfunction.

Still, clinical trial results first reported in 2017 found that — after surgical removal of the prostate tumor — adding two years of hormone therapy, along with radiation treatment, appeared to boost patients’ long-term survival.

Those findings led to the recommendation that men with recurrent prostate cancer be treated with both radiation and long-term hormone therapy after surgery.

Would those benefits last, however? To find out, Spratt’s team reanalyzed data from the clinical trial of 760 prostate cancer patients that spurred the new guidelines. Men in the trial were treated at centers across North America between 1998 and 2003. All had seen their cancer return after surgery, and they received radiation therapy along with either two years of hormone-suppressing therapy called bicalutamide, or a “dummy” placebo.

Looking at the data more closely, Spratt’s team found that for men with low PSA blood levels after prostate surgery, long-term hormone therapy offered no cancer survival benefit, and was associated with a doubling of the risk that these men would die from causes other than their cancer.

Patients with both low PSA and long-term hormone therapy were also three to four times more likely to experience a combination of severe heart events and neurological problems, the team reported.

“We went into this study expecting that men with low PSAs probably would derive minimal benefit from hormone therapy, but we were surprised at the magnitude of harm that these patients experienced,” Spratt said in an ASTRO news release.

“A lot of these side effects have been reported over the past few decades, but demonstrating this in a clinical trial to this extent has not been done before,” he noted.

“What we showed for the first time is that a patient’s PSA level is a predictive biomarker,” Spratt said. “That is, you can use a patient’s PSA to better select which men should receive hormone therapy, and to predict who will benefit and who will not benefit from this treatment, and who may actually be harmed by it.”

Spratt believes that, based on the new analysis, clinical guidelines for treating men with recurrent prostate cancer should be reconsidered.

“For post-operative patients with low PSAs, they do very well with just radiation therapy after surgery. They actually have very good long-term outcomes,” Spratt said.

Two experts in prostate cancer care said decisions around hormone therapy remain tough for patients and doctors, but the new study offers a bit more clarity.

Dr. Manish Vira is vice chair of urologic research at Northwell Health’s Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, in Lake Success, N.Y. He said the study “wades into the muddy waters” surrounding the risks and benefits of hormone therapy, and questions still remain.

“The results of the current study may not be generalizable to all hormonal therapy, as this study specifically used high-dose bicalutamide,” he said, and other hormone-suppressing medicines might work differently.

“That being said, the study suggests that for patients undergoing radiation therapy with lower PSA values, radiation [alone] may be more prudent,” Vira said.

Urologist Dr. Elizabeth Kavaler agreed.

“This is a very useful study, in that it gives clinicians clear guidelines on how to treat men with high-risk prostate cancer who have elevated PSA after surgery and radiation,” said Kavaler, who practices at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

“Many of these patients do very well post-treatment, and do not need further hormone therapy, which will save many of them from the side effects that hormone-deprivation causes,” she added.

Because the study was presented at a medical meeting, its findings should be considered preliminary until they are published in a peer-reviewed journal.

More information

The U.S. National Cancer Institute has more on prostate cancer treatment.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: September 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

Purdue Files for Bankruptcy Over Opioid Crisis Suits, With Many States Objecting

MONDAY, Sept. 16, 2019 — OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma has filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, touching off what could be a fierce battle by dozens of states hoping to recoup billions spent fighting the opioid crisis.

As reported by The New York Times, there are over 2,600 pending federal and state lawsuits lodged against Purdue, and the pharmaceutical giant has proposed a resolution to most of them as part of its bankruptcy filing. The move was approved Sunday night by Purdue’s board of directors.

However, one group of 26 states has refused to settle with Purdue under the proposed arrangement. That sets the stage for lengthy legal battles between the states, Purdue Pharma and the wealthy Sackler family that owns the company, the Times said.

The first legal fight could occur as early as this week in White Plains, N.Y., the newspaper added.

In a statement, Purdue Chairman Steve Miller said the company’s proposed settlement “will dedicate all of the assets and resources of Purdue for the benefit of the American public. This settlement framework avoids wasting hundreds of millions of dollars and years on protracted litigation, and instead will provide billions of dollars and critical resources to communities across the country trying to cope with the opioid crisis.”

Purdue hopes to restructure following bankruptcy, and in the process trigger an automatic halt to civil litigation against it over the opioid epidemic, the Times said.

The settlement requires the dissolution of Purdue Pharma and the formation of a new “public benefit trust” that would continue to sell OxyContin, the firm’s blockbuster opioid.

Proceeds from the new company would be used to pay the plaintiffs in the lawsuit and combat the opioid epidemic through research and the development of new medicines to treat addiction. Purdue also would donate drugs under development for addiction treatment and overdose reversal.

In its filing, Purdue claims the company is valued at $ 10 billion. However, states opposed to the plan say that number is speculative and could take years to realize. And they add that the Sacklers still plan to run another pharmaceutical business, a British company called Mundipharma, until it is sold off. Finally, the states contend that settling the lawsuits through the continued sale of Oxycontin helps the Sackler family itself avoid any monetary penalty.

In a statement, the Sackler family said it had “deep compassion for the victims of the opioid crisis,” the Times reported. “We are hopeful that in time, those parties who are not yet supportive will ultimately shift their focus to the critical resources that the settlement provides to people and problems that need them.”

The Chapter 11 filing comes just one day after New York Attorney General Letitia James announced evidence of almost a billion dollars in previously undisclosed wire transfers from Purdue to private accounts held by Sackler family members.

In a statement released earlier this month about the proposed bankruptcy settlement, Connecticut Attorney General William Tong said that, “I cannot speak to other states or divulge confidential negotiations, but Connecticut has not agreed to any settlement. The scope and scale of the pain, death and destruction that Purdue and the Sacklers have caused far exceeds anything that has been offered thus far.”

More than 200,000 people have died from prescription opioid overdoses since 1999, according to federal statistics. Another 200,000 have died due to overdoses from illicit opioids such as heroin and fentanyl.

More information

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have more about the opioid epidemic.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: September 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

Many Parents Would Switch Doctors Over Vaccination Policy, Poll Finds

MONDAY, Aug. 19, 2019 — Forty percent of U.S. parents say they would likely find a new doctor if their child’s primary care provider sees families who refuse childhood vaccines, a nationwide poll finds.

And three in 10 say their child’s primary care provider should not treat youngsters whose parents refuse all vaccines.

Those are key findings of the latest C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health from the University of Michigan. The findings, published Aug. 19, are based on responses from 2,032 parents of at least one child aged 18 or younger.

“When a family refuses all childhood vaccines, it puts providers in a challenging position,” poll co-director Sarah Clark said in a university news release announcing the findings.

Not only is an unvaccinated child unprotected against harmful and contagious diseases (such as measles, whooping cough and chickenpox), those who skip vaccines also pose a risk of transmitting diseases to other patients, she pointed out.

“This can be especially risky exposure for vulnerable populations, including infants too young to receive vaccines, elderly patients, patients with weakened immune systems or pregnant women,” Clark added.

But many parents were unaware of their health care provider’s policies, and some were unconcerned.

Thirty-nine percent said their child’s primary care provider requires patients to get all recommended vaccines; 8% said only some vaccines are required; and 15% said their provider has no policy. Almost four in 10 weren’t sure.

But 29% of respondents said they’d be “somewhat likely” to look for another doctor if theirs saw kids whose parents had refused all vaccines. Twelve percent would be “very likely” to switch, the findings showed.

Six percent said their provider doesn’t let unvaccinated kids use the common waiting room; 2% said they are allowed do so if they wear a mask. About one-quarter said their provider had no restrictions.

Many parents favor tighter controls: 17% said unvaccinated kids should be kept out of the waiting room and 27% said any allowed in should have to wear masks. Yet, 28% of parents favored no restrictions.

About 43% said they would want to know if other patients at their child’s primary care practice had received no vaccines, while 33% would not, according to the poll.

Clark said recent measles outbreaks underscore the need for parents and providers to consider policies for unvaccinated children.

“Parents may assume that when they take their child to the doctor, they are in a setting that will not expose their child to diseases,” she said. “Parents may not have considered that there could be another child in the waiting room whose parents have refused all vaccines.”

Clark said providers need to consider whether to adopt policies to prevent exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases and then communicate them to everyone in their practice.

“Any parent — and particularly parents of infants or immunocompromised children — should ask their child’s primary care provider about policies surrounding unvaccinated children,” she advised.

The poll, administered in February to a representative sample of parents, has a margin of error of plus or minus 1 to 3 percentage points.

More information

The American Academy of Pediatrics has more on vaccinations.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: August 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

Recall: Taco Seasoning Over Salmonella Fears

July 26, 2019 — A Kansas food company ordered the recall of two kinds of taco seasoning sold at Walmart and H-E-B stores for fears it may be contaminated with salmonella.

Williams Foods LLC ordered the recall because the cumin spice included in the mixes was separately recalled by the Mincing Spice Co. A sample lot from Mincing was found to be “potentially contaminated” with salmonella, according to the FDA.

The recalled products are sold in 1-ounce to 1.25-ounce packages. They were sold in Washington, D.C., Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

One of the products was branded as Walmart’s in-house Great Value Mild Taco Seasoning Mix and the other as H-E-B Taco Seasoning Mix. The Great Value mix has a best-by date of July 8, 2021, or July 9, 2019. The H-E-B mix has a “better by” date of July 10, 2021, July 11, 2021, or July 15, 2021.

There have been no reports of illness.

Salmonella can cause a serious and sometimes fatal infection in young children, people who are frail or elderly, and others with weakened immune systems. Otherwise healthy people may have a fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, salmonella can enter the bloodstream and cause more severe illnesses.


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Stowaway falls from plane over London, narrowly missing sunbather

LONDON (Reuters) – The body of a suspected stowaway fell hundreds of meters from a plane flying over southwest London, landing in the garden of a man’s home, just missing him as he sunbathed, according to neighbors.

General view outside a house where the body of a suspected stowaway fell into the back garden from a plane flying over southwest London, Britain, July 2, 2019. REUTERS/Peter Nicholls

Police believe the man fell into the property in Clapham from the landing compartment of a Kenya Airways plane as it lowered its wheels on the approach to Heathrow Airport.

A neighbor, who asked not to be named, said the body landed only three feet (one meter) from the resident.

“He was so lucky not to be hit and killed. The impact obliterated the body,” the neighbor told The Sun newspaper.

“He didn’t even realize what it was to begin with. He was asleep and then there was a huge impact.”

Police said in a statement they were called to a home on Sunday after the body was found. A post-mortem examination is due to be carried out and the man has not yet been identified.

A bag, water and some food was found in the landing gear compartment of the plane after it arrived at Heathrow.

Photographs show the body landed partly on concrete paving slabs and partly on a lawn – leaving a crater in the garden of the house, which is more than 10 miles (15 km) from Heathrow.

Another neighbor told the Press Association that he heard a “whomp” when the body hit the ground, and went upstairs to look out of a window.

“At first I though it was a tramp asleep in the garden. He had all of his clothes on and everything,” the neighbor was quoted as saying.

“I had a closer look and saw there was blood all over the walls of the garden. His head was not in a good way. I realized immediately that he had fallen.”

Kenya Airways said the 4,250-mile trip from Nairobi to Heathrow takes eight hours and 50 minutes.

“It is unfortunate that a person has lost his life by stowing aboard one of our aircraft and we express our condolences,” the airline said in a statement.

Stowaways have previously landed in trees and on shop roofs in London after falling on the approach to Heathrow.

General view outside a house where the body of a suspected stowaway fell into the back garden from a plane flying over southwest London, Britain, July 2, 2019. REUTERS/Peter Nicholls

Jose Matada fell to his death in 2012 from a British Airways flight from Angola. He was not reported missing and it took six months to identify him.

The inquest into his death heard that he endured temperatures of between minus 50 Celsius and minus 60 Celsius and suffered a lack of oxygen before he fell to earth.

In 2015, the body of a stowaway on a British Airways flight from Johannesburg to Heathrow landed on a shop in Richmond, southwest London. A second stowaway survived the 10-hour flight and was found in the undercarriage of the plane.

Editing by Stephen Addison

Reuters: Oddly Enough

FDA Recalls Insulin Pumps Over Security Concerns

By Megan Brooks

June 28, 2019 — The FDA has recalled certain Medtronic MiniMed insulin pumps because there’s a risk of them being hacked, the agency said.

The recall affects Medtronic’s MiniMed 508 and MiniMed Paradigm series insulin pumps. The FDA recommends that patients using these models switch their pump to models that are better equipped to protect against these risks.

“While we are not aware of patients who may have been harmed by this particular cybersecurity vulnerability, the risk of patient harm if such a vulnerability were left unaddressed is significant,” Suzanne Schwartz, MD, of the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health, said in a statement.

The cybersecurity risks found in the device mean that someone other than a patient, caregiver, or health care provider could connect wirelessly to a nearby MiniMed insulin pump and change the pump’s settings, the FDA warns. This could allow a person to deliver too much insulin to a patient, leading to hypoglycemia, or to stop insulin delivery, leading to hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.

Medtronic can’t update the MiniMed 508 and Paradigm insulin pumps well enough with any software or patch to address the devices’ risks, the FDA says.

Medtronic has identified 4,000 patients in the United States who could be using the recalled insulin pumps that are vulnerable to this issue. The company is working with its distributors to identify other patients who might be using these pumps. Medtronic is giving patients other insulin pumps that have better cybersecurity, and the company sent a letter to them explaining the issue.

“The FDA urges manufacturers everywhere to remain vigilant about their medical products — to monitor and assess cybersecurity vulnerability risk, and to be proactive about disclosing vulnerabilities and mitigations to address them,” Schwartz said.

In March, the FDA warned about cybersecurity risks in Medtronic’s implantable cardiac devices and telemetry systems.

Medscape Medical News

© 2019 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

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Hispanic Teens Losing Sleep Over Trump’s Immigration Policies

MONDAY, June 24, 2019 — Hispanic teens are being driven to anxiety and sleeplessness over the Trump Administration’s immigration policies, even though they are U.S.-born citizens and face no threat of deportation, a new study shows.

Nearly half of a group of 16-year-old Hispanic children in the Salinas Valley region of California reported that they worry that U.S. immigration policy could tear their families apart, researchers found.

Those teens had five times higher levels of anxiety as kids without similar worries, the study shows. They also had poorer sleep quality.

“These are U.S. citizens and these are 16-year-olds, and kids who have this kind of high level of anxiety, it’s not fleeting,” said lead researcher Brenda Eskenazi, director of the Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health at the University of California, Berkeley.

“It’s likely to affect their ability to focus in school, stay in school, criminality, their health,” Eskenazi continued. “If you’re living with this level of anxiety, there are likely to be long-term consequences. It’s likely to affect other aspects of their life and well-being.”

Worse, this particular group of teenagers likely reflect only a hint of the ongoing fear that’s simmering in other parts of the nation, Eskenazi added.

The city of Salinas is promoted as a welcoming city nestled within the sanctuary state of California, researchers noted. Three out of four people in the Salinas Valley are Hispanic, and the percentage of undocumented immigrants likely exceeds 29%.

“These kids are living in a pretty exclusive environment. We’re not seeing a whole lot of ICE raids in this area. And yet, as U.S. citizens, they are experiencing effects,” Eskenazi said. “We may see more of this in kids around the United States who aren’t living in such a protective environment.”

There are an estimated 18 million children in the United States with at least one immigrant parent — 1 in every 4 kids, the researchers noted. Nearly 1 in 10 has at least one parent who’s an undocumented immigrant.

Just last week, U.S. President Donald Trump promised raids targeting about 2,000 in 10 major cities across the country.

Trump then announced Saturday that he was delaying the raids for two weeks, to put pressure on Democratic lawmakers to accept changes that would tighten the nation’s asylum laws.

Eskenazi and her colleagues are engaged in a long-term study of about 400 children born to Hispanic farmworker families in the Salinas Valley. The kids are U.S. citizens born to at least one parent from Mexico or Central America.

“We have been following them since they were in utero, at least half of these kids,” Eskenazi said.

By chance, these kids underwent a health assessment at age 14, just before the 2016 presidential election, and another at age 16 in the first year after the election.

The researchers realized this would give them a unique chance to see how anti-immigration policies are affecting the children of immigrants.

About 45% of the kids in the study said they worry at least sometimes about how U.S. immigration policy would affect them personally, or whether their families would be separated due to deportation.

Two in five said they worried about being reported to the immigration office, even though they are citizens.

The teens with immigration worries had much higher anxiety levels, and those levels nearly tripled between their pre- and post-election checkups, researchers calculated.

This anxiety appears to be affecting their sleep. One in five said it takes them a long time to get to sleep, 16% said they have fairly or very bad sleep quality, and 11% said they had trouble staying awake during the day.

Stress and sleeplessness can affect teens’ performance in school and increase their risks of future health problems like obesity and high blood pressure, said Dr. Elizabeth Dawson-Hahn, an assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington in Seattle. She co-authored an editorial accompanying the study, published online June 24 in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.

Kids dealing with anxiety also are at increased risk for substance abuse, and have poorer future job prospects, the researchers noted.

“It’s not setting them up for success or a healthy life ahead to add this additional stressor to their lives,” Dawson-Hahn said. “It’s important to recognize that policies do have public health impacts.”

These teens will likely need more help in the future. “At the very least we need to track these kids and we need to provide legal and mental health services,” Eskenazi said.

Health care professionals also can help by encouraging advanced care planning amongst these families, Dawson-Hahn said.

Families should make plans to determine with whom a teen would stay if one or both parents are arrested by immigration agents, and whether the teen would leave the country if their parents are deported or stay in the United States with a trusted adult, Dawson-Hahn said.

“This is a legitimate concern. The concern youth have about their parents potentially being deported, it is real,” Dawson-Hahn said. “We need to help families think through planning if they were to be deported, while acknowledging that we hope that is not the outcome for the family.”

More information

The American Psychological Association has more about teens and stress.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: June 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

He’s a Veteran of Wars Over the Persian Gulf — and Marijuana Edibles

If America’s legal cannabis movement is going to be successful, it needs support from both of the major political parties and from people like Dan Anglin, a former U.S. Marine turned Republican lobbyist turned edibles entrepreneur. A veteran of Desert Storm as well as the early days of cannabis legalization in Colorado, Anglin has seen — and helped usher in — significant changes to laws and regulations surrounding cannabis edibles, while also starting a national brand of his own.

We chatted with Anglin about the early days of pot edibles, expanding his CannAmerica edibles into new states, and the political climate surrounding cannabis.

Westword: You served in the military and worked as a lobbyist for conservative business issues. How did you find yourself going from weapons systems to owning an edibles company?

Dan Anglin: It all ties to my background in state government and policy-making. As a lobbyist, I ran my own firm and was recommended to EdiPure (an infused-product manufacturer) for assistance on a bill that would have banned edibles prior to full legalization of recreational cannabis [in Colorado]. My specialty was killing bills, and at the time, I had been defending weapons magazine manufacturers from having their most popular product and main line of business banned. Even though that was unsuccessful, my history with business issues in many areas of policy provided me with a legitimate relationship with both sides of the aisle, but I was known as a conservative lobbyist.

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I brought that reputation and my knowledge of conservative principles to the argument surrounding the constitutional rights of cannabis consumption, possession, manufacturing and distributing to argue that the same concerns that conservatives held dear for gun rights had to be applied to cannabis rights, because the voters placed these rights in the Colorado Constitution. I was successful in preventing an unconstitutional ban on cannabis products, and the founder of EdiPure offered me an ownership position in the company, and I haven’t looked back. I was concerned for my future when I accepted the offer, but as a lifelong consumer of cannabis, I finally found something to give my work meaning. It was, personally, the most frightening leap I’ve ever taken, and I regret nothing.

I’ve had fun, I’ve learned a lot, I’ve failed — and out of those failures brought success. It’s been a ride I could not have predicted ten years ago. I run a publicly traded company that is federally illegal. I still find myself in disbelief with everything that’s happened, but as a U.S. Marine, our guiding principle is “adapt and overcome,” and I’ve applied that to my daily life and my business, which helps me pick up the pieces when something doesn’t go as planned or keeps me grounded when things are better than expected. I think the hardest thing in cannabis is how long things take to accomplish, and for a Type A personality like myself, it can be harder to manage my own expectations of our progress than the struggles of a new, heavily regulated industry.

How has being a conservative been an advantage for you during this fight for legalization?

Conservatives thought they couldn’t support cannabis because of the history of the drug war. The genius of legalization of adult use was putting cannabis in the state’s constitution, which conservatives hold dear. That was the case in Colorado, and my history as a conservative business advocate gave me an edge and set me apart from other lobbyists and advocates for legalization: I was someone the conservative legislators had listened to in the past, so it was a shock to them to have me in their office, explaining why cannabis statutes and regulations could be viewed as no different than gun rights or any other business they have supported in the past.

I think Democrats were leery of my participation until I became part of the industry and a loud voice on behalf of the industry. I’ve since personally become more Libertarian in my political viewpoint, and am just plain tired of politicians dragging out the process with unnecessary roadblocks through regulations that have zero basis in facts and are still emotionally charged. It’s been over five years since recreational cannabis sales began, and the facts are that Colorado is the same place it was before adult-use sales — except there’s more commerce in the state due to the creation of this industry. Either side can make statistics say whatever supports their arguments, but the truth is that Colorado is business as usual in every way, with more jobs for people who want them and more personal freedoms than 70 percent of the rest of the country.

How have political powers — both left and right — come around on cannabis legalization and commercialization efforts in the past five years?

Good question. Lots of lip service, but no actual development of federal policies that protect people engaged in cannabis businesses or consumers. We still have serious banking issues as businesses and citizens — there’s been no meaningful fix that provides solutions, just talk. Veterans in legal states, like myself, are still risking their earned benefits and still unable to count their income in the industry for home loans, so, effectively, we are prevented from using our earned benefits, because Congress is too scared of a perceived backlash from their base to just treat cannabis as medicine as commerce, and as an individual right. I find most politicians to be all talk and no action on what is the single-most-popular issue in America: decriminalization and full-scale legalization of cannabis.

No schedule change will fix this issue except removal. I have yet to believe that there’s any meaningful effort on the part of any federal politician to move in that direction. They say they are, but then distractions of positions of “We have to be careful” get in the way. Really? Since the nineteenth century, people have been consuming cannabis in all the same ways that the industry is “creating,” but politicians have to act like this is some brand-new thing that no one knows anything about, so we have to take years to think about it? Teenagers can buy cannabis from strangers in a parking lot, and have done so since before I was a teenager in the ’80s. Let’s get real here and stop pretending like this is some brand-new thing. Ensure that there are measures for product testing and consumer safety (think alcohol), and stop pretending. Almost 70 percent of Americans now believe that what I just said should be the next step for America, so stop talking and start doing.

How have edibles changed since the early days of legalization, when you could find Hershey’s knockoffs at dispensaries and stories of overeating were common?

It was a free-for-all in the beginning. No one understood trademark law, no one understood packaging standards, there were no dosing limitations, no testing of the cannabis and the food ingredients, and no real science being applied to the product development. Getting the most THC into a product was the goal eight to ten years ago in Colorado. Now, actual food science is part of the development; advanced packaging solutions are being utilized and created for the cannabis industry specifically; actual data about product demand and consumer trends are being applied. There are so many new brands coming to each market that competition has grown, which by nature means that companies have to compete based on price, quality and consumer confidence.

As in any other line of business, this has created great choices for consumers. The real issue is that consumers demand the highest quality at the cheapest price, which is unrealistic in any commodity. You can’t buy a Cadillac for the same price as a Chevy for a reason, and I believe there’s going to be a trend toward quality and brand confidence over lowest price.

As the market matures, it’s inevitable that companies will focus on scale, quality and brand confidence, just like what’s been happening in Colorado for the last three years. Additionally, the marketing has matured just like the consumer base. I’m convinced that a cannabis company can still be fun and activate consumer interest without sexualizing the product or overgeneralizing the consumer. We need to be able to have creative freedom for marketing our product to the consumer base better. The biggest new demographic is older adults, and the industry needs some freedom to connect with that demographic to encourage them to come to dispensaries, and arm them with information about the products they are seeking. It’s very difficult to do that with the current advertising restrictions across all the legal cannabis markets. Politicians and regulators have this unfounded belief that seeing the product in marketing increases use by non-adults, but pointed marketing to an older generation will not do that, and any advertising firm can tell you that seeing Viagra ads on TV doesn’t make teenagers go take Viagra. There’s no common sense in these regulations, and that’s the frustrating part. Cannabis could be a trillion-dollar industry if we were actually allowed to market to the older Americans who have been brainwashed for the last forty years that it’s bad for you.

Do cannabis regulations keep up with industry innovation and consumer trends?

No way. I asked the Colorado State Legislature to allow publicly traded companies in 2015, because cannabis companies couldn’t traditionally borrow money for expansion from banks. That effort failed because the regulators came up with arguments that they couldn’t vet everyone in a publicly traded company, creating false fears that criminal enterprises would somehow be involved in our industry. CannAmerica Brands has since gone public on the Canadian Stock Exchange and OTC [over the counter], and I can tell you there’s no other vetting quite like being public, so that was a specious and false argument then.

Governor Jared Polis just signed the bill allowing publicly traded companies to have ownership in Colorado cannabis companies, which is great, but four years behind the trend. It will have a positive impact, but government is the slowest animal there is, and keeping up with innovation and trends is not something government is known for, in any industry. As a business advocate and owner, I can tell you that often, government is the biggest hurdle to getting new products into the hands of consumers, which is exactly the reason for a black market in any industry. That will never change.

What are the challenges and advantages of positioning a cannabis company in multiple states with different regulations instead of just one?

Challenges are: funding; brand awareness; variances in regulations; demographics of each market; and product demand. Advantages are: each new market is a brand-new set of consumers, so it’s much easier to introduce a brand that they have seen while on vacation in Colorado or Nevada or other places where it’s legal, so they are immediate customers, and excited that you’ve arrived in their home state.

You’ve been around cannabis for a while — why gummies? Why do they stand the test of time?

I LOVE GUMMIES. I’ve been working for years to create the right recipe for the best-tasting gummies, and I think we’ve finally hit a grand slam with our new recipe and packaging that launched in early June in Nevada and is launching in Colorado just in time for Independence Day — the holiday that fits our brand and our vision and has always been a focus for CannAmerica. Gummies are so popular because it’s so easy to understand the serving: One piece is one dose. Plus, they are delicious! They also don’t melt as easily as other food items and have a long shelf life, so if you don’t eat them all right away, they’re still good to eat if you’ve stored them right. Edibles are a huge sector of the market, and I’m a gummy guy. We make other things in other markets, but gummies are my passion, so that’s our flagship product.

What can we expect to see from edibles in the future? How will you keep pushing the bar?

Microdosing (more pieces of food for a standard serving of THC), more food offerings (hardest part is shelf life and portability), higher-quality offerings for consumer demand, and hopefully some more fun. Gummies are a fun and delicious way to medicate or consume, and I’d like some freedom to make more fun shapes for adult use, but for now, we are focusing on new offerings in edibles and beverages that allow consumers to have more choices when looking for a CannAmerica product. We are focusing on many verticals to meet consumer demand besides edibles, but for me personally, edibles is our foundation.


Toke of the Town

Largest Pot Bust in Colorado History Claims Over 80,000 Plants

Colorado law enforcement officers, district attorneys and federal authorities collaborated on what they describe as the largest collective marijuana bust in the state’s history.

During a press conference on May 24, Jason Dunn, the U.S. Attorney for the District of Colorado, discussed the two-year investigation that included nearly 250 location searches in eight counties across the state and led to  42 arrests after raids over the last three days.

“To be clear, these grows are not ones that were otherwise legal under state law. These are pure black market,” Dunn said. “We want people to know these grow operations are not occurring in abandoned houses or poorer parts of the metro area. These are happening in middle- and upper-class neighborhoods, [where] many of us live and raise families.”

The investigation was a collaborative effort of the Drug Enforcement Administration, Dunn’s office, several Colorado district attorneys and over thirty local sheriff and police departments. Over 80,000 marijuana plants, 41 homes, 25 vehicles and more than $ 2.1 million were seized during the busts. Dunn declined to reveal whether those arrested were all part of the same criminal enterprise, citing an open investigation.

Sixteen of the defendants are facing federal charges, while the other 26 will be tried in state courts. The majority of the grows had more than 100 plants, Dunn said, and eleven defendants were charged with growing 1,000 plants. None of the arrested individuals had medical marijuana patient or caregiver cards, he added.

U.S. Attorney Jason Dunn described a two-year investigation into illegal marijuana growing that culminated in 42 arrests.

U.S. Attorney Jason Dunn described a two-year investigation into illegal marijuana growing that culminated in 42 arrests.

Thomas Mitchell

While industry reports claim that Colorado has the smallest black market for marijuana of any state in the country, Colorado district attorneys Dave Young and George Brauchler believe otherwise. During the press conference, both DAs said that recreational pot legalization has led to a rise in large-scale criminal growing operations, taking advantage of state laws that allow individuals 21 and older to grow up to twelve marijuana in their homes to disguise the grows.

“It’s clear that when Amendment 64 passed, this is not what the voters had in mind when they legalized marijuana in Colorado,” said Young, the DA for the 17th District of Colorado, calling the state a “hub” for illegal pot activity. “We have put a big dent in that hub today.”

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In an interview in 2018, previous U.S. Attorney Bob Troyer said that federal authorities were investigating criminal operations from China and Cuba that were gutting homes, stealing utilities and growing illegal marijuana in the Denver suburbs; Brauchler and DEA special agent Tim McDermott confirmed that individuals from both countries were among the 42 arrested.

“[Colorado] did not vote for the wild west of weed, and that’s what we are becoming,” said Brauchler, the DA for the 18th District of Colorado. “This is not an urban issue. This is a suburban and rural issue that grows out of Amendment 64.”

Brauchler said he’s frustrated by the amount of resources that law enforcement within his jurisdiction has spent on fighting illegal marijuana cultivations; his office has had to hire an extra prosecutor specifically for illegal marijuana grows, he noted.

“There are parts of this state, and I represent them, that did not vote for Amendment 64 but are bearing the brunt of the growth of the black market that was generated from it,” Brauchler added. “For all the other states going down this same green, green-brick road: if you legalize marijuana and allow it to be grown in homes, this is what you can expect to happen.”


Toke of the Town