How Giant Dinosaurs Evolved to Stay Cool

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 16, 2019 — Giant dinosaurs, such as long-necked sauropods, evolved special cooling systems to prevent overheating and brain damage, according to a new study.

“Small dinosaurs could have just run into the shade to cool off, but for those giant dinosaurs, the potential for overheating was literally inescapable,” said study co-author Lawrence Witmer, a professor of anatomy at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. “They must have had special mechanisms to control brain temperature, but what were they?”

The answer was found in everyday experience: Air-conditioners use evaporation, and it’s the evaporative cooling of sweat that keeps people comfortable in summer. So, not surprisingly, when researchers examined modern-day relatives of dinosaurs — birds and reptiles — they found that evaporation of moisture in the nose, mouth and eyes cooled blood on its way to the brain.

The investigators used 3D imaging of fossils to reveal multiple heat exchangers in dinosaur heads.

Lead author Ruger Porter, an assistant professor of anatomical instruction, said, “The handy thing about blood vessels is that they basically write their presence into the bones. The bony canals and grooves that we see in modern-day birds and reptiles are our link to the dinosaur fossils. We can use this bony evidence to restore the patterns of blood flow in extinct dinosaurs and hopefully get a glimpse into their thermal physiology and how they dealt with heat.”

The study was published Oct. 16 in the journal Anatomical Record.

Sharon Swartz of the National Science Foundation, which funded the research, said the findings show how the physical constraints imposed by specific environmental conditions shaped dinosaurs’ evolution.

“Using a combination of technological innovation and biological expertise, these researchers were able to take a direct reading from the fossil record that provides new clues about how dinosaur skeletal form and function evolved,” she said.

More information

The American Museum of Natural History has more on dinosaurs.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: October 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

 How Long Does CBD Stay In Your Body?

If you are a CBD user, you should know that a lot of factors can affect the way your body processes CBD. There is only one clear thing – it will not stay in your body for longer than one week. At the moment, scientists are still conducting studies to learn more about it. 

CBD may remain longer in your body in case you have a slow metabolism. Factors such as frequency of use, dosage, method of administration can also influence the presence of CBD in your body.

If you are about to pass a drug test, you should start flushing out the drug toxins as soon as possible. There are a lot of home remedies that can help you pass the test. First of all, you should drink plenty of water, tea, and cranberry juice to urinate as often as possible. 

Secondly, start eating high-fibre foods, including vegetables and fruits. Besides that, you should do some aerobic exercises, try hiking, jogging, or biking. Some experts also recommend going to the sauna in order to start sweating. 

If you are not sure whether you still have CBD in your body, consider using synthetic urine for the test. 

Quick fix 6.2 can help you avoid undesired consequences. The best thing is that it comes with heating pads inside of the package – it makes the product warm and authentic. 

To learn more about how long marijuana stays in the human body, check out the infographic below:

Shane Dwyer
Author: Shane Dwyer
Shane Dwyer is a cannabis advocate who isn’t afraid to tell the world about it! You can find his views, rants, and tips published regularly at The 420 Times.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

‘Secret Life of Pets 2’ Comes Home to Sit ‘n’ Stay

Heartwarming, gut-busting animated family blockbuster The Secret Life of Pets 2 is ready to be adopted on disc and digital this summer, through Universal Pictures Home Entertainment. Illumination Entertainment’s warm and fuzzy sequel arrives on Digital August 13, and on 4K Ultra HD, Blu-ray, DVD and On Demand on August 27. DVD and Digital versions are packed with well over an hour of bonus content, including two brand-new mini-movies. Meanwhile, 4K and Blu-ray versions include an exclusive Captain Snowball Motion Comic.

In The Secret Life of Pets 2, terrier Max (Patton Oswalt) is coping with major life changes after Katie’s marriage and the arrival of a toddler, Liam. Meanwhile, Gidget (Jenny Slate) tries to rescue Max’s favorite toy from a cat-packed apartment with a little help from her feline friend, Chloe (Lake Bell), who has discovered the joys of catnip. And Snowball (Kevin Hart) believes, despite the other pets’ teasing, that he’s a superhero after his owner starts dressing him in superhero pajamas. But when Daisy (Tiffany Haddish), a fearless Shih Tzu, shows up to ask for Snowball’s help on a dangerous mission, he’ll have to summon the courage to become the hero he’s been pretending to be.

The voice cast also features Eric Stonestreet, Nick Kroll, Dana Carvey, Ellie Kemper, Hannibal Buress, Bobby Moynihan and Harrison Ford in his first-ever animation role: a farm dog named Rooster.

Bonus Features (4K, Blu-ray, DVD & Digital):

  • Mini Movie: Minion Scouts – When Margo, Agnes and Edith return from Badger Scout camp, three of the Minions are entranced by the girls’ merit badges. Their own attempt at scout camp results in attracting a bear, eating poison berries and eventually blowing up a dam, creating a massive flood. But, when they arrive back home, the girls share their badges, encouraging the rest of the Minions to try their hand at scouting.
  • Mini Movie: Super Gidget – When Max is kidnapped by an army of squirrels, Super Gidget is the only one who can save him. It turns out that Max’s captor is a flea with the power of mind control. Gidget must use her pluckiness, strength and smarts to save her one true love…until it turns out it was all just a dream.
  • The Making of the Mini Movies – Every Illumination film is accompanied by mini movies that are a production all their own. Each film’s directing partners will explore how the mini movies were made.
  • Deleted Scenes: “Wake Up” – Max and Duke have a new morning routine with Liam. “Duke Explores the Farm” – Duke has a funny interaction with a goat. “Snowball Karate” – Snowball does his superhero warm up. “Secret Confessions” – Dogs gather to talk about their deepest secrets.
  • A Tapestry of a Tail: The Making Of – The plot of The Secret Life of Pets 2 involves multiple storylines ultimately coming together to create a larger than life tale. We talk with the filmmakers, editor and cast about the delicate dance of juggling multiple narratives in one movie.
  • How to Draw – Hosted by Head of Story, Eric Favela, follow the step-by-step tutorial to learn to draw Max, Snowball and Chloe.
  • Frame by Frame: How to Make a Flip Book – In this DIY-style vignette, Head of Story Eric Favela will teach viewers about the essence of animation and how they can create their very own flip book animations at home.
  • Character Pods – Get a closer look at your favorite characters of The Secret Life of Pets 2 with these delightful character pods that might just give away a few more pet secrets. Patton Oswalt – Max; Kevin Hart – Snowbal;l Eric Stonestreet – Duke; Jenny Slate – Gidget; Tiffany Haddish – Daisy; Lake Bell – Chloe; Nick Kroll – Sergei; Dana Carvey – Pops; Bobby Moynihan – Mel; Harrison Ford – Rooster
  • A Party Fit for a Pet – Using stop-motion animation, this step-by-step guide teaches you everything you need to know to throw the very best party for your pet!
  • Pops’ Puppy Training School with Kevin Hart – Join Kevin Hart as he shows off his dog training skills.
  • Pets Yule Log – Sit back and relax in front of this exclusive The Secret Life of Pets 2 themed animated ‘Yule Log.’
  • ‘Panda’ Lyric Video
  • ‘It’s Gonna Be A Lovely Day (The Secret Life of Pets 2)’ Lyric Video

4K & Blu-ray Exclusive:

  • The Further Adventures of Captain Snowball (Interactive) – This animated ‘Motion Comic’ expands the world of our furry hero, Captain Snowball. Using a ‘superhero’ comic book style and custom animation, we discover more about the secret world of our caped crusader with a little help from our viewers. At key moments in the story, the viewer is presented with a choice: left, or right? Fight or flight? Their choice determines our hero’s next move!

4K, Blu-ray & Digital Exclusives:

  • My Buddy and Me – We interview the Illumination cast and crew talking about The Secret Life of Pets 2 while holding (or trying to hold) their pets.
  • Pets with Jobs: A Documentary – We find and profile animals with special jobs – a service dog that detects when its epileptic owner is about to have a seizure; ponies that provide comfort to children with cancer; police dogs that go the extra mile to catch the bad guys. Meet some of the many animals who make the world a better place every day!
  • Relax the Cat: The Secret Life of Pets Massage – A professional pet masseuse shows the cast how to read signs of tension in their pet and use massage techniques to keep their furry babies relaxed and happy!
  • Production Pets – It takes hundreds of people to make an animated movie and a lot of those people have pets that can’t wait for them to come home. This piece is dedicated to all those faithful companions.

Animation Magazine

How to Make Your Child’s Hospital Stay Safer, Less Stressful

THURSDAY, July 18, 2019 — More than 3 million kids are hospitalized in the United States every year. Whether it’s for a planned test or surgery or an injury or other emergency, knowing how to be involved in your child’s care can help you get through what’s often a stressful event.

The single most important thing you can do is be an active member of your child’s health care team, taking part in every decision, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Learn as much as you can about your child’s condition and needed tests and treatments from the medical staff and other reliable sources. Ask if the doctor’s recommendations are based on the latest scientific evidence.

Get to know all the members of the care team, especially the lead physician, and make sure each has all of your child’s important health information — from allergies to what vitamins and prescription drugs, if any, he or she takes.

If you have a choice, use a hospital with a lot of experience in the procedure or surgery your child needs — research shows that this leads to better results.

While your child is in the hospital, don’t be afraid to speak up if you see something out of the norm or even if health care workers neglect to wash their hands, an important way to prevent the spread of infections.

Ask why each test or procedure is being done, how it can help and when results will be available so that you’re not stressed over how long it’s taking. If your child is having surgery, make sure that you, your child’s doctor and the surgeon all agree and are clear on exactly what will be done. On the other hand, be prepared to answer the same questions over and over — it may seem tedious but it helps prevent mistakes.

Before your child goes home, ask the team to go over his or her care plan, including any needed medication and/or restrictions on their activities. Speak up if you have any questions. Take notes or ask a loved one to do it for you.

More information

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has more tips on preventing hospital errors to help parents safeguard their children.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: July 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

Stay Safe While Spring Cleaning

FRIDAY, May 10, 2019 — While it’s a regular ritual, spring cleaning can become a dangerous chore for your health, experts warn.

Some cleaning supplies — air fresheners, rug cleaners, bleach, oven cleaners and floor polish — have dangerous chemicals such as volatile organic compounds.

These chemicals become vapors that can irritate the nose, throat, eyes and lungs, said Dr. Timothy Craig, an allergist and immunologist at Penn State Health.

“The nose provides a helpful warning signal,” he added in a health system news release. “If someone’s nose becomes irritated while cleaning, it’s safe to assume his or her lungs will be irritated, too.”

“For most people, using chemical cleaners occasionally would not create clinically significant reductions in lung function,” Craig said.

“But repeated exposure to harmful chemicals over a lifetime could lead to significant disability later in life, especially for people with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] or Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, a genetic disorder that may cause lung or liver disease,” he warned.

“We all clean with bleach and other chemicals from time to time,” said Dr. Ann Bogdan, a family health physician from Penn State Health Medical Group-Mechanicsburg. “But I encourage my patients to be careful when doing so.”

The doctors offer these six safety precautions while spring cleaning.

  • Don’t combine chemical cleaners. “In particular, never mix ammonia and bleach,” Bogdan said. This can result in dangerously toxic vapors.
  • While cleaning, be sure to have proper ventilation by opening a window or running a fan.
  • Wear rubber gloves. “Without them, you run the risk of developing redness or rashes on your hands,” Craig said.
  • Try using old-fashioned cleaners. “Diluted vinegar works well to clean windows, and baking soda gives you scrubbing power,” Bogdan said.
  • Read labels and look for volatile organic compounds and other potential irritants, even in products labeled as “green” or “healthy.”
  • Look for products with the “Safer Choice” logo, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency deems as “safer for human health and the environment.”

And their final advice: If you develop coughing, wheezing, throat soreness or eye watering while using chemical cleaners, step into another room or walk outside. If the symptoms persist even after leaving the room, call a doctor.

More information

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources offers a household products database.

© 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Posted: May 2019

Drugs.com – Daily MedNews

How Long Does Marijuana Stay in Your System?

Many people wonder just how long does weed stay in your system?  The short answer is that it varies depending on how much of it is in your system.  Today I’ll break down the facts behind the question that many people have as well as offer up some solutions to get weed out of your system.  

The Facts About Weed (Marijuana) Being In Your System

Marijuana in your system

Pot, mary jane, dope, weed, marijuana, or cannabis.  Call it what you want, but the facts remain the same – it’s detectable in your bodily fluids for a span of one to 30 days after the last time you used it.  In some cases, it may be able to be detected for up to many months.  This all depends on how much you ingest (or smoke), as well as how frequent you are doing this. It shouldn’t be of any surprise to you that the more you do it, and the higher dose you ingest, the longer it’ll stay in your system and be detectable.

If you use it daily, you can expect the cannabis to be detectable for many months after the last time it’s used.  Some detection times will span beyond 90 days in length.

I’m also going to break down urine, blood, saliva, and hair and share with you what I know about the detection windows for finding it in your system, so pay close attention and you can rest assured I’ll share with you some game changing tips that can benefit you as you go through corporate drug testing.

How Long is Marijuana Detectable in Drug Testing?

When you perform drug tests, it’s important that you know they are designed to measure and record marijuana and it’s by-products, also called metabolites.  The latter will be found in your system way after you get the high from weed, which let’s be honest, is a big reason many people smoke it.

Drug tests measure marijuana and its by-products, or metabolites. These metabolites remain in your system long after weed’s effects have worn off.

Urine testing

Marijuana can be detected in your urine for the below amounts of time.  (Each one is based on the last use date.)

  • Chronic heavy users (using many occasions throughout daily life) :  more than 30 days
  • Chronic users (usage on a daily basis) :  1 to 2 weeks
  • Moderate users (four to seven days per week) :  5 to 7 days
  • Occasional users (up to three times weekly) :  3 days

Source:  Very Well Mind, reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD.

There are many methods for passing a urine test for marijuana.  Read that page to find out a few tricks, or visit this page to find our recommended solutions.

Did you know that urine testing is the most common testing method?  

Urine testing

Blood Testing

If you are ever asked to take a blood test for marijuana, rest assured that it only really stays in your blood stream for up to two days in most cases.  Sure, there are the outliers that will cite that it has been found after 25 days, but that’s a rarity and also coincides with chronic heavy use.

Once you inhale weed, it’ll be in your bloodstream in mere seconds as it’s already made it’s way to the tissues.  Parts of it will be absorbed into your blood and broken down.

If you are ever sent to a laboratory to get a marijuana test, this is where they’d look for the weed.  It’s not a very common type of testing.

blood testing

Saliva Testing

You can actually have marijuana find it’s way into your saliva through the mere exposure to smoke, so be very careful of who you hang around leading up to a saliva test for weed.  Of course, if you do smoke it, you’ll find that it’ll be detectable up to 29 days if you are a chronic user and just three days if you smoke occasionally.

Interesting Fact:  if you find yourself in a jurisdiction where weed is legal, your oral fluid can be used for roadside sobriety testing.  Keep that in mind before you go to Colorado or other legal States and just start smoking and driving, please.

Saliva Testing

Hair Testing

This is the one you’ll want to really pay attention to.  First off, because the hair test for marijuana is a common one.  Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, because I’ve found a fool proof solution to the hair follicle testing that can help you beat it.

You’ll see marijuana use showing up in your hair tests for up to 90 days because the marijuana finds the hair follicles by coming through minute blood vessels.

When a hair follicle test is done, they will sample a 1.5-inch strand of hair plucked from the scalp to look at marijuana use over the last 90 days.

hair marijuana test

How Long Before the Marijuana Metabolizes?

We all understand that the active ingredient in marijuana is THC, right?

That should be basic knowledge, but I like to refresh things for people who may be learning about this for the first time.  THC is short for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol.  It enters your body and makes it’s way into the bloodstream.  Some is stored for a while in fatty tissues and organs.  Once it’s entered your kidneys, it can be reabsorbed into your bloodstream.

With over 90 metabolites, THC gets broken down in your liver.  As I touched on earlier, most drug tests look for metabolites.

Over time, THC and it’s metabolites are pushed out of your system through your stool and urine.

What Determines How Long Weed Remains In Your System?

There are a few things that will come into play to help determine how long this will stay in your system.

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

While these aren’t related to the drug, they all have a hand in processing the drug.

Of course, the number one factor is frequency. If you are a heavy user, and use a huge dose, obviously it’ll stay in your system a longer time versus the occasional use of a small dosage.

When you smoke a stronger weed with a lot of potency, it has the chance of staying in your system longer as well.

How You Can Speed up The Process

I already know what you are thinking, how can I make marijuana metabolize through my system faster?

Many blogs will tell you to steam out, sweat out the marijuana through exercise, drink water, and be healthy, but while those all help you naturally detox, it won’t necessarily push weed through your system any quicker.

The only way to really help the cause is to use a detox kit.

How Long Before You Feel the Effects of Weed?

Sort of unrelated, but have you ever thought of the time it takes to get high versus the time it takes to rid your body of weed and it’s metabolites?

I have always been curious as to how you can get high so fast, but can’t get weed out of your system for days, and often times, a month.

The average person gets high 15 to 30 minutes after smoking weed, and up to two hours after ingesting it.

Getting high

What are the Short Term Effects of Being High?

  • enhanced well being
  • feeling of relaxation
  • time feels like it stops
  • feeling of humor and talkativeness
  • altered state of mind

While those affects deal with the “high” of weed, these ones are more like side effects that most people will agree aren’t enjoyable:

  • lack of focus
  • poor coordination
  • desire to eat more
  • hard to sleep
  • feeling of restlessness
  • increased heart rate
  • dry eyes and “cottonmouth”
  • feeling ill
  • anxiety

Of course, in some situations people can go off the deep end and even hallucinate or become paranoid.  Don’t worry, as the short term effects of weed will wear off in just one to three hours.

Conclusion

Weed stays in your system for a variety of time frames depending on many factors.  If you are having to pass a drug test, it’s best that you stay away from marijuana entirely leading up to the test for 90 days.  Of course, should you make a mistake, we recommend this vendor.  They sell every type of kit you need to pass any test mentioned above, and even have at home drug testing kits you can use to test yourself prior.

Marijuana & Cannabis News – The 420 Times

Getting Flu Shot During Hospital Stay Is a Safe Bet